Thoracotomy excluded references

Excluded references

1. Abd El-Hakeem EE, Mohamed MS, Ali SM, El-Minshawy AM. Haemodynamic and pulmonary shunt fraction changes with sevoflurane or propofol anaesthesia during one-lung ventilation for thoracic surgery. Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia 2003;19(3):233-241.

2. Alex J, Ansari J, Bahalkar P, Agarwala S, Rehman MU, Saleh A, Cowen ME. Comparison of the immediate postoperative outcome of using the conventional two drains versus a single drain after lobectomy. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 2003;76(4):1046-9.

3. Augoustides JG, Ochroch EA. Perioperative use of nitric oxide in cardiothoracic anesthesia and intensive care. Progress in Anesthesiology 2001;15(7):115-122.

4. Ayed AK, Al-Din HJ. Video-assisted thoracoscopy versus thoracotomy for primary spontaneous pneumothorax: A randomized controlled trial. Medical Principles & Practice 2000;9(2):113-118.

5. Azad SC, Groh J, Beyer A, Schneck D, Dreher E, Peter K. [Continuous peridural analgesia vs patient – controlled intravenous analgesia for pain therapy after thoracotomy]. Anaesthesist 2000;49(1):9-17.

6. Bachiocco V. Mixed regimens for post-thoracotomy pain. Pain Digest 2001;11(4):171-178.

7. Badner NH, Bhandari R, Komar WE. Bupivacaine 0.125% improves continuous postoperative epidural fentanyl analgesia after abdominal or thoracic surgery. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1994;41(5 Pt 1):387-92.

8. Badner NH, Komar WE. Bupivacaine 0.1% does not improve post-operative epidural fentanyl analgesia after abdominal or thoracic surgery.[see comment]. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1992;39(4):330-6.

9. Badner NH, Sandler AN, Leitch L, Koren G. Analgesic and respiratory effects of continuous lumbar epidural fentanyl in post-thoracotomy patients. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1989;36(3 II).

10. Baumrucker SJ. Post-thoracotomy pain syndrome: an opportunity for palliative care. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care 2002;19(2):83-4.

11. Bedi A, Murray JM, Dingley J, Stevenson MA, Fee JP. Use of xenon as a sedative for patients receiving critical care.[see comment]. Critical Care Medicine 2003;31(10):2470-7.

12. Benedetti F, Vighetti S, Amanzio M, Casadio C, Oliaro A, Bergamasco B, Maggi G. Dose-response relationship of opioids in nociceptive and neuropathic postoperative pain. Pain 1998;74(2-3):205-11.

13. Benumof JL, Augustine SD, Gibbons JA. Halothane and isoflurane only slightly impair arterial oxygenation during one-lung ventilation in patients undergoing thoracotomy. Anesthesiology 1987;67(6):910-5.

14. Bergh NP, Dottori O, Lof BA, Simonsson BG, Ygge H. Effect of intercostal block on lung function after thoracotomy. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1966;24:85-95.

15. Block BM, Liu SS, Rowlingson AJ, Cowan AR, Cowan JA, Jr., Wu CL. Efficacy of postoperative epidural analgesia: a meta-analysis.[see comment]. JAMA 2003;290(18):2455-63.

16. Boldt J, Muller M, Uphus D, Padberg W, Hempelmann G. Cardiorespiratory changes in patients undergoing pulmonary resection using different anesthetic management techniques. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 1996;10(7):854-9.

17. Bormann B, Weidler B, Dennhardt R, Sturm G, Scheld HH, Hempelmann G. Influence of epidural fentanyl on stress-induced elevation of plasma vasopressin (ADH) after surgery. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1983;62(8):727-32.

18. Brose WG, Tanelian DL, Brodsky JB, Mark JB, Cousins MJ. CSF and blood pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone and morphine following lumbar epidural administration. Pain 1991;45(1):11-5.

19. Burgess FW, Anderson DM, Colonna D, Sborov MJ, Cavanaugh DG. Ipsilateral shoulder pain following thoracic surgery.[see comment]. Anesthesiology 1993;78(2):365-8.

20. Cerfolio RJ, Price TN, Bryant AS, Sale Bass C, Bartolucci AA. Intracostal sutures decrease the pain of thoracotomy. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 2003;76(2):407-11; discussion 411-2.

21. Chan V, Chung F, Cheng DCH, Kirby TJ, Chung A, Sandler A. Continuous intercostal nerve block for pain relief following thoracotomy – A new approach. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1988;35(3 II).

22. Chan VWS, Ferrante FM, Arthur GR. Analgesic effect of intrapleural bupivacaine following thoracotomy. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1989;36(3 II):S154-S155.

23. Chatham K, Marshall C, Campbell IA, Prescott RJ. The flutter VRP1 device for post-thoracotomy patients. Physiotherapy 1993;79(2):95-98.

24. Chelly JE, Grass J, Houseman TW, Minkowitz H, Pue A. The safety and efficacy of a fentanyl patient-controlled transdermal system for acute postoperative analgesia: a multicenter, placebo-controlled trial. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2004;98(2):427-33, table of contents.

25. Conacher ID. Pain relief after thoracotomy. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1990;65(6):806-12.

26. de la Rocha AG, Chambers K. Pain amelioration after thoracotomy: a prospective, randomized study. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 1984;37(3):239-42.

27. Delilkan AE, Lee CK, Yong NK, Ganendran A. Post-operative local analgesia for thoracotomy with direct bupivacaine intercostal blocks. Anaesthesia 1973;28(5):561-7.

28. Dellinger A, Marchand A, Zoheir F, Kirkorian G, Touboul P. [Comparison of etomidate and thiopental for the anesthesia in cardioversion]. Annales Francaises d Anesthesie et de Reanimation 1988;7(2):128-31.

29. Diegeler A, Walther T, Metz S, Falk V, Krakor R, Autschbach R, Mohr FW. Comparison of MIDCAP versus conventional CABG surgery regarding pain and quality of life. Heart Surgery Forum 1999;2(4):290-5; discussion 295-6.

30. Eng J, Sabanathan S. Post-thoracotomy analgesia. Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh 1993;38(2):62-8.

31. Etches RC, Sandler AN. Analgesic effects of epidural nalbuphine in post-thoracotomy patients. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1989;36(3 II):S156-S157.

32. Faust RJ, Nauss LA. Post-thoracotomy intercostal block: comparison of its effects on pulmonary function with those of intramuscular meperidine. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1976;55(4):542-6.

33. Forster R, Storck M, Schafer JR, Honig E, Lang G, Liewald F. Thoracoscopy versus thoracotomy: a prospective comparison of trauma and quality of life. Langenbecks Archives of Surgery 2002;387(1):32-6.

34. Francois T, Blanloeil Y, Pillet F, Moren J, Mazoit X, Geay G, Douet MC. Effect of interpleural administration of bupivacaine or lidocaine on pain and morphine requirement after esophagectomy with thoracotomy: a randomized, double-blind and controlled study. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1995;80(4):718-23.

35. Fromme GA, Steidl LJ, Danielson DR. Comparison of lumbar and thoracic epidural morphine for relief of postthoracotomy pain. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1985;64(4):454-5.

36. Furrer M, Rechsteiner R, Eigenmann V, Signer C, Althaus U, Ris HB. Thoracotomy and thoracoscopy: postoperative pulmonary function, pain and chest wall complaints. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 1997;12(1):82-7.

37. Galway JE, Caves PK, Dundee JW. Effect of intercostal nerve blockade during operation on lung function and the relief of pain following thoracotomy. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1975;47(6):730-5.

38. Garutti I, Cruz P, Olmedilla L, Barrio JM, Cruz A, Fernandez C, Perez-Pena JM. Effects of thoracic epidural meperidine on arterial oxygenation during one-lung ventilation in thoracic surgery. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 2003;17(3):302-5.

39. Gebhard FT, Becker HP, Gerngross H, Bruckner UB. Reduced inflammatory response in minimal invasive surgery of pneumothorax. Archives of Surgery 1996;131(10):1079-82.

40. Giudicelli R, Thomas P, Lonjon T, Ragni J, Morati N, Ottomani R, Fuentes PA, Shennib H, Noirclerc M. Video-Assisted minithoracotomy versus musclesparing thoracotomy for performing lobectomy. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 1994;58(3):712-718.

41. Glantz L, Godovic G, Lekar M, Kramer M, Eidelman LA. Efficacy of transdermal nitroglycerin combined with etodolac for the treatment of chronic post-thoracotomy pain: An open-label prospective clinical trial. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management 2004;27(3):277-281.

42. Glynn CJ, Lloyd JW, Barnard JD. Cryoanalgesia in the management of pain after thoracotomy. Thorax 1980;35(5):325-7.

43. Gordh T, Jr. Epidural clonidine for treatment of postoperative pain after thoracotomy. A double-blind placebo-controlled study. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1988;32(8):702-9.

44. Gowan JD, Hurtig JB, Fraser RA, Torbicki E, Kitts J. Naloxone infusion after prophylactic epidural morphine: effects on incidence of postoperative side-effects and quality of analgesia. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1988;35(2):143-8.

45. Gozal Y, Drenger B. The pharmacology of new drugs and new uses for older drugs used for thoracic pain relief. Seminars in Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 1999;3(3):144-155.

46. Granell Gil M, Aguar Olba F, Arnau Obrer A, Grau Real F, Canto Armengod A, Palanca Sanfrancisco JM. [Lung function and quality of analgesia after lung resection with epidural alfentanyl]. Revista Espanola de Anestesiologia y Reanimacion 2000;47(7):293-8.

47. Grant RP, Dolman JF, Harper JA, White SA, Parsons DG, Evans KG, Merrick P. Patient controlled lumbar epidural fentanyl for post thoracotomy pain. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1990;37(4 Pt 2):S45.

48. Gray JR, Fromme GA, Nauss LA, Wang JK, Ilstrup DM. Intrathecal morphine for post-thoracotomy pain. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1986;65(8):873-6.

49. Griffiths DP, Diamond AW, Cameron JD. Postoperative extradural analgesia following thoracic surgery: a feasibility study. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1975;47(1):48-55.

50. Grosmanova T, Koutna J, Scheinarova A. Analgesia after intercostal thoracotomy. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis Facultatis Medicae 1993;136:53-5.

51. Gundersen RY, Andersen R, Narverud G. Postoperative pain relief with high-dose epidural buprenorphine: a double-blind study. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1986;30(8):664-7.

52. Haak-van der Lely F, van Kleef JW, Burm AG, Bovill JG. An intra-operative comparison of lumbar with thoracic epidural sufentanil for thoracotomy. Anaesthesia 1994a;49(2):119-21.

53. Haak-van der Lely F, van Kleef JW, Burm AG, Bovill JG. Preoperative interpleural administration of sufentanil or bupivacaine reduces intraoperative intravenous sufentanil requirements during thoracotomy. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 1993;7(5):526-8.

54. Haak-van der Lely F, van Kleef JW, Gesink-van der Veer BJ, Burm AG, Bovill JG. Efficacy of epidurally administered sufentanil versus bupivacaine during thoracic surgery. A randomised placebo-controlled double-blind study. Anaesthesia 1994b;49(2):116-8.

55. Hachenberg T, Pfeiffer B. Use of thoracic epidural anaesthesia for thoracic surgery and its effect on pulmonary function. Bailliere’s Best Practice in Clinical Anaesthesiology 1999;13(1):57-72.

56. Hansdottir V, Woestenborghs R, Nordberg G. The pharmacokinetics of continuous epidural sufentanil and bupivacaine infusion after thoracotomy. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1996;83(2):401-6.

57. Hasenbos M, van Egmond J, Gielen M, Crul JF. Post-operative analgesia by epidural versus intramuscular nicomorphine after thoracotomy. Part I. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1985a;29(6):572-6.

58. Hasenbos M, van Egmond J, Gielen M, Crul JF. Post-operative analgesia by epidural versus intramuscular nicomorphine after thoracotomy. Part II. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1985b;29(6):577-82.

59. Hasenbos M, van Egmond J, Gielen M, Crul JF. Post-operative analgesia by high thoracic epidural versus intramuscular nicomorphine after thoracotomy. Part III. The effects of per- and post-operative analgesia on morbidity. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1987;31(7):608-15.

60. Hasenbos MA, Eckhaus MN, Slappendel R, Gielen MJ. Continuous high thoracic epidural administration of bupivacaine with sufentanil or nicomorphine for postoperative pain relief after thoracic surgery. Regional Anesthesia 1989;14(5):212-8.

61. Hayward RH, Knight WL, Baisden CE, Korompai FL. Access to the thorax by incision. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 1994;179(2):202-8.

62. Higgins TL, Yared JP, Estafanous FG, Coyle JP, Ko HK, Goodale DB. Propofol versus midazolam for intensive care unit sedation after coronary artery bypass grafting. Critical Care Medicine 1994;22(9):1415-23.

63. Inada K, Shirakusa T, Yoshinaga Y, Yoneda S, Shiraishi T, Okabayashi K, Iwasaki A, Kawahara K. The role of video-assisted thoracic surgery for the treatment of lung cancer: lung lobectomy by thoracoscopy versus the standard thoracotomy approach. International Surgery 2000;85(1):6-12.

64. Inderbitzi R, Flueckiger K, Ris HB. Pain relief and respiratory mechanics during continuous intrapleural bupivacaine administration after thoracotomy. Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgeon 1992;40(2):87-9.

65. Iwasaki A, Hamatake D, Shirakusa T. Biosorbable Poly-L-Lactide Rib-Connecting Pins May Reduce Acute Pain after Thoracotomy. Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgeon 2004;52(1):49-53.

66. Jain S, Datta S, Tundis D. Management of chronic postthoracotomy pain. Seminars in Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 1999;3(3):191-203.

67. Jakobsen CJ, Bille S, Ahlburg P, Rybro L, Hjortholm K, Andresen EB. Perioperative metoprolol reduces the frequency of atrial fibrillation after thoracotomy for lung resection. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 1997a;11(6):746-51.

68. Jakobsen CJ, Bille S, Ahlburg P, Rybro L, Pedersen KD, Rasmussen B. Preoperative metoprolol improves cardiovascular stability and reduces oxygen consumption after thoracotomy. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1997b;41(10):1324-30.

69. Jimenez-Merchan R, Garcia-Diaz F, Arenas-Linares C, Giron-Arjona JC, Congregado-Loscertales M, Loscertales J. Comparative retrospective study of surgical treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax. Thoracotomy vs thoracoscopy. Surgical Endoscopy 1997;11(9):919-22.

70. Johnson MD, Mickler T, Arthur GR, Rosenburg S, Wilson R. Bupivacaine with and without epinephrine for intercostal nerve block. Journal of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia 1990;4(2):200-3.

71. Jones RM, Cashman JN, Foster JM, Wedley JR, Adams AP. Comparison of infusions of morphine and lysine acetyl salicylate for the relief of pain following thoracic surgery. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1985;57(3):259-63.

72. Joucken K, Michel L, Schoevaerdts JC, Mayne A, Randour P. Cryoanalgesia for post-thoracotomy pain relief. Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica 1987;38(2):179-83.

73. Katz J, Jackson M, Kavanagh BP, Sandler AN. Acute pain after thoracic surgery predicts long-term post-thoracotomy pain. Clinical Journal of Pain 1996;12(1):50-5.

74. Kavanagh BP, Katz J, Sandler AN, Nierenberg H, Boylan JF, Friedlander M, Davies A. Pain and narcotic use following thoracic surgery are reduced by preemptive lumbar epidural fentanyl: A randomized prospective double-blind crossover study. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1992;39(5 II SUPPL).

75. Kessler P, Neidhart G, Bremerich DH, Aybek T, Dogan S, Lischke V, Byhahn C. High thoracic epidural anesthesia for coronary artery bypass grafting using two different surgical approaches in conscious patients. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2002;95(4):791-7, table of contents.

76. Kim KH, Kim HK, Han JY, Kim JT, Won YS, Choi SS. Transaxillary minithoracotomy versus video-assisted thoracic surgery for spontaneous pneumothorax.[see comment]. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 1996;61(5):1510-2.

77. Kirby TJ, Mack MJ, Landreneau RJ, Rice TW. Lobectomy–video-assisted thoracic surgery versus muscle-sparing thoracotomy. A randomized trial. Journal of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery 1995;109(5):997-1001; discussion 1001-2.

78. Kiss J, Bacsa S. The application of probon, a new analgesic in thoracic surgery. Therapia Hungarica 1976;24(1):15-6.

79. Kolvenbach H, Lauven PM, Schneider B, Kunath U. Repetitive intercostal nerve block via catheter for postoperative pain relief after thoracotomy. Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgeon 1989;37(5):273-6.

80. Koren G, Sandler AN, Klein J, Whiting WC, Lau LC, Slavchenko P, Daley D. Relationship between the pharmacokinetics and the analgesic and respiratory pharmacodynamics of epidural sufentanil. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 1989;46(4):458-62.

81. Kovacs M, Keszler P. A new analgesic (probon) in thoracic surgery. Therapia Hungarica 1971;19(4):162-3.

82. Kruger M, McRae K. Pain management in cardiothoracic practice. Surgical Clinics of North America 1999a;79(2):387-400.

83. Kruger M, Sandler AN. Post-thoracotomy pain control. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology 1999b;12(1):55-109.

84. Landreneau RJ, Pigula F, Luketich JD, Keenan RJ, Bartley S, Fetterman LS, Bowers CM, Weyant RJ, Ferson PF. Acute and chronic morbidity differences between muscle-sparing and standard lateral thoracotomies. Journal of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery 1996;112(5):1346-50; discussion 1350-1.

85. Lange MP, Dahn MS, Jacobs LA. Patient-controlled analgesia versus intermittent analgesia dosing.[see comment]. Heart & Lung: Journal of Acute & Critical Care 1988;17(5):495-8.

86. Laxenaire MC, Boileau S, Dagrenat P, Menu N, Drouet N. Haemodynamic and respiratory effects of post-operative doxapram and almitrine in patients following pneumonectomy. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 1986;3(4):259-71.

87. Lebovits AH, Zenetos P, O’Neill DK, Cox D, Dubois MY, Jansen LA, Turndorf H. Satisfaction with epidural and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. Pain Medicine 2001;2(4):280-286.

88. Lepage-Savary D, Poulin E, Labrecque G, Belley H, Laliberte J, Brie M, Leclerc P, Nadeau L, Pouliot M. Comparative study on the effectiveness of intravenous or subcutaneous morphine. Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 1991;44(2):63-69.

89. Li WW, Lee RL, Lee TW, Ng CS, Sihoe AD, Wan IY, Arifi AA, Yim AP. The impact of thoracic surgical access on early shoulder function: video-assisted thoracic surgery versus posterolateral thoracotomy. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 2003;23(3):390-6.

90. Lieou FJ, Lee SC, Ho ST, Wang JJ. Interpleural bupivacaine for pain relief after transthoracic endoscopic sympathectomy for primary hyperhidrosis. Acta Anaesthesiologica Sinica 1996;34(1):21-5.

91. Ludwick F, Hall L, Gaines SK. Examining management of pain for infants following cardiothoracic surgery. DCCN – Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing 1995;14(3):136-43.

92. Mascotto G, Bizzarri M, Messina M, Cerchierini E, Torri G, Carozzo A, Casati A. Prospective, randomized, controlled evaluation of the preventive effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on patient oxygenation during one-lung ventilation. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 2003;20(9):704-10.

93. Matsumura Y, Matsubara Y, Uchida I, Mashimo T, Yoshiya I. [Comparison of propofol and isoflurane anesthesia on postoperative nausea, vomiting and pruritus induced by epidural morphine]. Masui – Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology 2000;49(9):1000-4.

94. McCrory C, Fitzgerald D. Spinal prostaglandin formation and pain perception following thoracotorny: Arole for cyclooxygenase-2. Chest 2004;125(4):1321-1327.

95. Moon MR, Luchette FA, Gibson SW, Crews J, Sudarshan G, Hurst JM, Davis K, Jr., Johannigman JA, Frame SB, Fischer JE. Prospective, randomized comparison of epidural versus parenteral opioid analgesia in thoracic trauma. Annals of Surgery 1999;229(5):684-91; discussion 691-2.

96. Moote C. Efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the management of postoperative pain. Drugs 1992;44(Suppl 5):14-29; discussion 29-30.

97. Murphy DF, Graziotti P, Chalkiadis G, McKenna M. Patient-controlled analgesia: a comparison with nurse-controlled intravenous opioid infusions. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care 1994;22(5):589-92.

98. Nelson KM, Vincent RG, Bourke RS, Smith DE, Blakeley WR, Kaplan RJ, Pollay M. Intraoperative intercostal nerve freezing to prevent postthoracotomy pain. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 1974;18(3):280-5.

99. Nordberg G, Hansdottir V, Bondesson U, Boreus LO, Mellstrand T, Hedner T. CSF and plasma pharmacokinetics of pethidine and norpethidine in man after epidural and intrathecal administration of pethidine. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1988;34(6):625-31.

100. Nordberg G, Hansdottir V, Kvist L, Mellstrand T, Hedner T. Pharmacokinetics of different epidural sites of morphine administration. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1987;33(5):499-504.

101. Nordberg G. Pharmacokinetic aspects of spinal morphine analgesia. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1984;79:1-38.

102. Nordberg G, Hedner T, Mellstrand T, Dahlstrom B. Pharmacokinetic aspects of epidural morphine analgesia. Anesthesiology 1983;58(6):545-51.

103. Nordberg G, Mellstrand T, Borg L, Hedner T. Extradural morphine: influence of adrenaline admixture. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1986;58(6):598-604.

104. Novak-Jankovic V, Paver E, rcirc, en V, Bovill JG, Ihan A, Osredkar J. Effect of epidural and intravenous clonidine on the neuro-endocrine and immune stress response in patients undergoing lung surgery. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 2000;17(1):50-6.

105. Oakes DD, Cohn RB, Brodsky JB, Merrell RC, Sherck JP. Lateral thoracotomy and one-lung anesthesia in patients with morbid obesity. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 1982;34(5):572-80.

106. Orr IA, Keenan DJ, Dundee JW, Patterson CC, Greenfield AA. Post-thoracotomy pain relief: combined use of cryoprobe and morphine infusion techniques. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 1983;65(6):366-9.

107. Panos L, Sandler AN, Stringer DG, Badner N, Lawson S, Koren G. Continuous infusions of lumbar epidural fentanyl and intravenous fentanyl for post-thoracotomy pain relief. I: Analgesic and pharmacokinetic effects. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1990;37(4 Pt 2):S66.

108. Petit J, Comar D, Pigot B, Eustache ML, Oksenhendler G, Winckler C. [Epidural analgesia after thoracic surgery: morphine versus buprenorphine]. Annales Francaises d Anesthesie et de Reanimation 1988;7(6):464-70.

109. Phillips DM, Moore RA, Bullingham RE, Allen MC, Baldwin D, Fisher A, Lloyd JW, McQuay HJ. Plasma morphine concentrations and clinical effects after thoracic extradural morphine or diamorphine. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1984;56(8):829-36.

110. Pigot B, Petit J, Eustache ML, Oksenhendler G, Winckler C. [Effects of intravenous naloxone on the secondary effects and analgesia after epidural injection of fentanyl]. Annales Francaises d Anesthesie et de Reanimation 1987;6(5):434-8.

111. Poopalalingam R, Chow MY, Wong LT. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia after thoracic and upper abdominal surgery using sufentanil with and without bupivacaine 0.125%. Singapore Medical Journal 2003;44(3):126-30.

112. Power I, Chambers WA, Greer IA, Ramage D, Simon E. Platelet function after intramuscular diclofenac. Anaesthesia 1990;45(11):916-9.

113. Quimby CW, Jr., Timmes JJ, Demos NJ. A re-evaluation of regional anesthesia for thoracic surgery. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1966;45(1):97-101.

114. Raff H, Flemma RJ, Findling JW. Fast cortisol-induced inhibition of the adrenocorticotropin response to surgery in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 1988;67(6):1146-8.

115. Ragni J, Guillen JC, Auge A, Bordigoni L, Giudicelli R, Fuentes P. [Prolonged epidural analgesia following thoracotomy. Clinical study and serum levels over five days]. Annales de Chirurgie 1991;45(2):167-76.

116. Randell TT, Tierala EK, Lepantalo MJ, Lindgren L. Prophylactic minitracheostomy after thoracotomy: a prospective, random control, clinical trial. European Journal of Surgery 1991;157(9):501-4.

117. Rawal N, Sjostrand U, Dahlstrom B. Postoperative pain relief by epidural morphine. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1981;60(10):726-31.

118. Richardson J, Lonnqvist PA. Thoracic paravertebral block. Br J Anaesth 1998;81(2):230-8.

119. Richardson J, Sabanathan S, Shah R. Post-thoracotomy spirometric lung function: The effect of analgesia. Minerva Pneumologica 1999a;38(3-4):151-164.

120. Richardson J, Sabanathan S, Shah R. Post-thoracotomy spirometric lung function: the effect of analgesia. A review. Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 1999b;40(3):445-56.

121. Rooney SM, Jain S, Goldiner PL. Effect of transcutaneous nerve stimulation on postoperative pain after thoracotomy. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1983;62(11):1010-2.

122. Rooney SM, Jain S, McCormack P, Bains MS, Martini N, Goldiner PL. A comparison of pulmonary function tests for postthoracotomy pain using cryoanalgesia and transcutaneous nerve stimulation. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 1986;41(2):204-7.

123. Rosenberg PH, Scheinin BM, Lepantalo MJ, Lindfors O. Continuous intrapleural infusion of bupivacaine for analgesia after thoracotomy. Anesthesiology 1987;67(5):811-3.

124. Rubin JW, Finney NR, Borders BM, Chauvin EJ. Intrathoracic biopsies, pulmonary wedge excision, and management of pleural disease: is video-assisted closed chest surgery the approach of choice? American Surgeon 1994b;60(11):860-3.

125. Rubin JW. Video-assisted thoracic surgery: the approach of choice for selected diagnosis and therapy. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 1994a;8(8):431-5.

126. Sabanathan S, Smith PJ, Pradhan GN, Hashimi H, Eng JB, Mearns AJ. Continuous intercostal nerve block for pain relief after thoracotomy.[see comment]. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 1988;46(4):425-6.

127. Sabanathan S. Has postoperative pain been eradicated? Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 1995;77(3):202-9.

128. Salomaki TE, Leppaluoto J, Laitinen JO, Vuolteenaho O, Nuutinen LS. Epidural versus intravenous fentanyl for reducing hormonal, metabolic, and physiologic responses after thoracotomy. Anesthesiology 1993;79(4):672-9.

129. Salzer GM, Klingler P, Klingler A, Unger A. Pain treatment after thoracotomy: is it a special problem?[see comment]. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 1997;63(5):1411-4.

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