54 studies excluded (Click here for further information)

Excluded References 

Alexander R, El-Moalem HE, Gan TJ. Comparison of the morphine-sparing effects of diclofenac sodium and ketorolac tromethamine after major orthopedic surgery. J Clin Anesth 2002; 14: 187–92.

Anderson SK, Al-Shaikh BA. Diclofenac in Combination With Opiate Infusion After Joint Replacement Surgery. Anaesth Intens Care 1991; 19: 535–8.

Atanassoff PG, Hartmannsgruber MWB, Thrasher J, et al. Ziconotide, A New N-Type Calcium Channel Blocker, Administered Intrathecally for Acute Postoperative Pain. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 2000; 25: 274–8.

Bachman M, Laakso E, Niemi L, Rosenberg PH, Pitkanen M. Intrathecal infusion of bupivacaine with or with out morphine for postoperative pain after hip and knee arthroplasty. Br J Anaesth 1997; 78: 666–70.

Beattie WS, Warriner CB, Etches R, et al. The addition of continuous intravenous infusion of ketorolac to a patient-controlled analgetic morphine regime reduced postoperative myocardial ischemia in patients undergoing elective total hip or knee arthroplasty. Anesth Analg 1997; 84: 715–22.

Boeckstyns MEH, Backer M, Petersen EM, et al. Pirioxicam spares buprenorphine after total joint replacement. Controlled Study of Pain Treatment in 81 Patients. Acta Orthop Scand 1992; 63: 658–60.

Bogoch ER, Henke M, Mackenzie T, Olschewski E, Mahomed NN. Lumbar paravertebral nerve block in the management of pain after total hip and knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Arthroplasty 2002; 17: 398–401.

Clarke PM. Intrathecal Neostigmine. Anaesth 1997; 52: 1018.

Colwell CW, Morris BA. Patient-Controlled analgesia compared with intramuscular Injection of analgesics for the Management of Pain after an Orthopaedic procedure. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1995; 77: 726–33.

Daltroy LH, Morlino CI, Eaton HM, Poss R, Liang MH. Preoperative Education for Total Hip and Knee Replacement Patients. Arthritis Care Res 1998; 11: 469–77.

de Miguel Rivero C, Araujo CG, Sousa MM, et al. Comparative efficacy of oral ibuprofen-arginine, intramuscular magnesic dipyrone and placebo in patients with postoperative pain following total hip replacement. Clin Drug Invest 1997; 14: 276–85.

Drakeford MK, Pettine MD, Brookshire L, Ebert F. Spinal Narcotics for Postoperative Analgesia in Total Joint Arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1991; 73: 424–8.

Etches RC, Warriner CB, Badner N, et al. Continuous Intravenous Administration of Ketorolac Reduces Pain and Morphine Consumption After Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty. Anesth Analg 1995; 81: 1175–80.

Flory DA, Fankhauser RA, McShane MA. Post-operative Pain Control in Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Prospective, Randomized Study of a Fixed-Dose, Around-the-Clock, Oral Regimen. Orthopedics 2001; 24: 243–5.

Forst J, Wolff S, Thamm P, Forst R. Pain Therapy Following Joint Replacement. A Randomized Study of Patient Controlled Analgesia versus Conventional Pain Therapy. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1999; 119: 267–70.

Galasko CS, Courtenay PM, Jane M, Stamp TC. Trial of oral flupirtine maleate in the treatment of pain after orthopaedic surgery. Curr Med Res Opin 1985; 9: 594–601.

Ganapathy S, Herrick IA, Gelb AW, Kirkby J. Propofol Patient Controlled Sedation During Hip or Knee Arthroplasty in Elderly Patients. Can J Anaesth 1997; 44: 385–9.

Gao F, Waters B, Seager J, Dowling C, Vickers MD. Comparison of bupivacaine plus buprenorphine with bupivacaine alone by caudal blockade for postoperative pain relief after hip and knee arthroplasty. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1995; 12: 417–76.

Herrick IA, Ganapathy S, Komar W, et al. Post-operative Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly. Choice of Patient-Controlled Analgesia Opioid. Anaesth 1996; 51: 356–60.

Holmstrom B, Laugaland K, Rawal N, Hallberg S. Combined Spinal epidural block versus spinal and epidural block for orthopaedic surgery. Can J Anaesth 1993; 40: 601–6.

Hommeril JL, Bernard JM, Gouin F, Pinaud M. Ketoprofen for pain after hip and knee arthroplasty. Br J Anaesth 1994; 72: 383–7.

Johansson S, Josefsson G, Malstam J, Lindstrand A, Stenstroem A. Analgesic Efficacy and Safety Comparison of Ketorolac Thromethamine and Doleron for the Alleviation of Orthopaedic Post-operative Pain. J Int Med Res 1989; 17: 324–32.

Jones MJT, Piggott SE, Vaughan RS, et al. Cognitive and functional competence after anaesthesia in patients aged over 60: controlled trial of general and regional anaesthesia for elective hip or knee replacement. BMJ 1990; 300: 1683–7.

Kampe S, Weigand C, Kaufmann J, et al. Postoperative Analgesia with No Motor Block by Continuous Epidural Infusion of Ropivacaine 0.1% and Sufentanil After Total Hip Replacement. Anesth Analg 1999; 89: 395–8.

Kilickan L, Toker K. The effects of preemptive intravenous versus preemptive epidural morphine on postoperative analgesia and surgical stress response after orthopaedic procedures. Minerva Anestesiol 2000; 66: 649–55.

Klimscha W, Chiari A, Krafft P, et al. Hemodynamic and analgesic effects of clonidine added repetitively to continuous epidural and spinal blocks. Anesth Analg 1995; 80: 322–7.

Kostamovaara PA, Laitinen JO, Nuutinen LS, Koivuranta MK. Intravenous ketoprofen for pain relief after total hip or knee replacement. Acta Anaesth Italica 1996; 40: 697–703.

McNamee DA, Parks L, McClelland AM, et al. Intrathecal ropivacaine for total hip arthroplasty: double blind comparative study with isobaric 7.5 mg ml-1 and 10mg ml-1 solutions. Br J Anaesth 2001; 87: 743–7.

Modig J, Paalzow L. A Comparison of Epidural Morphine and Epidural Bupivacaine for Postoperative Pain Relief. Acta Anaesth. Scand 1981; 25: 437–41.

Murdoch JA, Dickson UK, Wilson PA, et al. The efficacy and safety of three concentrations of levobupivacaine administered as a continuous epidural infusion in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. Anesth Analg 2002; 94: 438–44, table of contents.

Niemi L, Pitkanen M, Dunkel P, Laakso E, Rosenberg PH. Evaluation of the usefulness of intrathecal bupivacaine infusion for analgesia and knee arthroplasty. Br J Anaesth 1996; 77: 544–5.

Niemi L, Pitkanen M, Tuominen MK, Rosenberg PH. Comparison of Intrathecal Fentanyl Infusion with Intrathecal Morphine Infusion of Bolus for Postoperative Pain Relief After Hip Arthroplasty. Anesth Analg 1993; 77: 126–30.

Niemi L, Pitkanen M, Tuominen MK, Rosenberg PH. Technical Problems and Side Effects Associated with Continuous Intrathecal or Epidural Post-operative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Hip Arthroplasty. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1994; 11: 469–74.

Pico L, Hernot S, Negre I, Samii K, Fletcher D. Perioperative titration of Morphine Improves Immediate Postoperative Analgesia after Total Hip Replacement Arthroplasty. Can J Anaesth 2000; 47: 309–14.

Porter EJB, McQuay HJ, Bullingham RES, et al. Comparison of Effects of Intraoperative and postoperative methadone: Acute tolerance to the postoperative dose? Br J Anaesth 1983; 55: 325–32.

Prieto-Alvarez P, Tello-Galindo I, Cuenca-Pena J, Rull-Bartomeu M, Gomar-Sanch C. Continuous epidural infusion of racemic methadone results in effective postoperative analgesia and low plasma concentrations. Can J Anaesth 2002; 49: 25–31.

Racle JP, Benkhadra A, Poy JP, Gleizal B. Prolongation of Isobaric Bupivacaine Spinal Anesthesia with Epinephrine and Clonidine for Hip Surgery in the Elderly. Anesth Analg 1987; 66: 442–6.

Rathmell JP, Pino CA, Taylor R, Patrin T, Viani BA. Intrathecal morphine for postoperative analgesia: a randomized, controlled, dose-ranging study after hip and knee arthroplasty. Anesth Analg 2003; 97: 1452-7.

Reay BA, Semple AJ, Macrae WA, MacKenzie N, Grant I. Low-Dose Intrathecal Diamorphine Analgesia Following Major Orthopaedic Surgery. Br J Anaesth 1989; 62: 248–52.

Reiz S, Ahlin J, Ahrenfeldt B, Andersson M, Andersson S. Epidual Morphine for Postoperative Pain Relief. Acta Anaesth. Scand 1981; 25: 111–4.

Segstro R, Morley-Forster PK, Lu G. The Efficacy of Indomethacin as a Postoperative Analgesic Folloeing Total Hip Replacement Arthroplasty. Can J Anaesth 1990; 37: S41.

Sharrock NE, Mineo R, Stanton J, et al. Single Versus Staged Epidural Injections of 0.75% Bupivacaine: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Effects. Anesth Analg 1994; 79: 307–12.

Smythe MA, Zak MB, O’Donnell MP, Schad RF, Dmuchowski CF. Patient-controlled analgesia versus patient-controlled analgesia plus continuous infusion after hip replacement surgery. Ann Pharmacother 1996; 30: 224–7.

Tarradell R, Pol O, Farre M, Barrera E, Puig MM. Respiratory and analgesic effects of meperidine and tramadol in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1996; 18: 211–8.

Tseuda K, Mosca PJ, Heine MF, et al. Mood During Epidural Patient-Controlled Analgesia with Morphine or Fentanyl. Anaesth 1998; 1998: 885–91.

Turner G, Blake D, Buckland M, et al. Continuous extradural infusion of ropivacaine for prevention of postoperative pain after major orthopaedic surgery. Br J Anaesth 1996; 76: 606–10.

Uhrbrand B, Toftgaard Jensen T, Klitgaard Bendixen D, Flemming Hartmann-Andersen J. Perioperative Analgesia by 3-in-one block in total hip replacement arthroplasty prospective randomized blind study. Acta Anaesth. Italica 1992; 58: 417–9.

Van Gessel E, Miege B, Forster A, et al. Comparison of Hyperbaric Solutions of Bupivacaine and tetracaine during Continuous Spinal Anaesthesia. Can J Anaesth 1992; 39: 323–9.

Vercauteren MP, Geernaert K, Hoffman VLH, Dohmen D, Adriaensen HA. Postoperative intrathecal patient-controlled analgesia with bupivacaine, sufentanil or a mixture of both. Anaesth 1998; 53: 1012–27.

Weller R, Rosenblum M, Conard P, Gross JB. Comparison of Epidural and Patient Controlled Intravenous Morphine Following Joint Replacement Surgery. Can J Anaesth 1991; 38: 582–6.

Ward M, Minto G, Alexander-Williams JM. A Comparison of Patient Controlled Analgesia Administered by the Intravenous or Intranasal Route during the Early Post-operative Period. Anaesth 2002; 57: 44–81.

Wilder-Smith CH, Wilder-Smith OHG, Farschtschian M, Naji P. Epidural Doperidol Reduces the Side Effects and Duration of Analgesia of Epidural Sufentanil. Anesth Analg 1994; 79: 98–104.

Wolff AP, Hasselstrom L, Kerkamp HE, Gielen MJ. Extradural ropivacaine and bupivacaine in hip surgery. Br J Anaesth 1995; 74: 458–60.

Zhou TJ, Tang J, White PF. Propacetamol Versus Ketorolac for Treatment of Acute Postoperative Pain after Total Hip or Knee Replacement. Anesth Analg 2001; 92: 1569–75.