42 studies excluded (Click here for further information)

Excluded References

Adriaenssens G, Vermeyen KM, Hoffmann VL, Mertens E, Adriaensen HF. Postoperative analgesia with i.v. patient-controlled morphine: effect of adding ketamine. Br J Anaesth 1999;83(3):393–396.

Albert JM, Talbott TM. Patient-controlled analgesia vs. conventional intramuscular analgesia following colon surgery. Dis Colon Rectum 1988;31(2):83–86.

Anonymous. Hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery vs standard laparoscopic surgery for colorectal disease: a prospective randomized trial. HALS Study Group. Surg Endosc 2000;14(10):896–901.

Azma T, Kawai K, Okida M, Okada K, Tamura H. Use of the laryngeal mask airway in combination with regional anesthesia facilitates induction and emergence from general anesthesia in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Hiroshima J Med Sci 2002;51(4):89–92.

Boudreault D, Brasseur L, Samii K, Lemoing JP. Comparison of continuous epidural bupivacaine infusion plus either continuous epidural infusion or patient-controlled epidural injection of fentanyl for postoperative analgesia. Anesth Analg 1991;73(2):132–137.

Bourget JL, Clark J, Joy N. Comparing preincisional with postincisional bupivacaine infiltration in the management of postoperative pain. Arch Surg 1997;132(7):766–769.

Braga M, Vignali A, Gianotti L, Zuliani W, Radaelli G, Gruarin P, Dellabona P, Di Carlo V. Laparoscopic versus open colorectal surgery: a randomized trial on short-term outcome. Ann Surg 2002;236(6):759–766; disscussion 767.

Cali RL, Meade PG, Swanson MS, Freeman C. Effect of Morphine and incision length on bowel function after colectomy. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43(2):163–168.

de Leon-Casasola OA, Parker BM, Lema MJ, Groth RI, Orsini-Fuentes J. Epidural analgesia versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. Differences in the postoperative course of cancer patients. Reg Anesth 1994;19(5):307–315.

Egbert AM, Lampros LL, Parks LL. Effects of patient-controlled analgesia on postoperative anxiety in elderly men. Am J Crit Care 1993;2(2):118–124.

Ferraz AA, Cowles VE, Condon RE, Carilli S, Ezberci F, Frantzides CT, Schulte WJ. Nonopioid analgesics shorten the duration of postoperative ileus. Am Surg 1995;61(12):1079–1083.

Frantzides CT, Cowles V, Salaymeh B, Tekin E, Condon RE. Morphine effects on human colonic myoelectric activity in the postoperative period. Am J Surg 1992;163(1):144–148; discussion 148–149.

Greer SM, Dalton JA, Carlson J, Youngblood R. Surgical patients’ fear of addiction to pain medication: the effect of an educational program for clinicians. Clin J Pain 2001;17(2):157–164.

Jayr C, Beaussier M, Gustafsson U, Leteurnier Y, Nathan N, Plaud B, Tran G, Varlet C, Marty J. Continuous epidural infusion of ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia after major abdominal surgery: comparative study with i.v. PCA morphine. Br J Anaesth 1998;81(6):887–892.

Jensen MP, Chen C, Brugger AM. Postsurgical pain outcome assessment. Pain 2002;99(1–2):101–109.

Kearns SR, Connolly EM, McNally S, McNamara DA, Deasy J. Randomized clinical trial of diathermy versus scalpel incision in elective midline laparotomy. Br J Surg 2001;88(1):41–44.

Kehlet H, Mogensen T. Hospital stay of 2 days after open sigmoidectomy with a multimodal rehabilitation programme. Br J Surg 1999;86(2):227–230.

Kong SK, Onsiong SM, Chiu WK, Li MK. Use of intrathecal morphine for postoperative pain relief after elective laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Anaesthesia 2002;57(12):1168–1173.

Krogh B, Jorn Jensen P, Henneberg SW, Hole P, Kronborg O. Nitrous oxide does not influence operating conditions or postoperative course in colonic surgery. Br J Anaesth 1994;72(1):55–57.

Kumar S, Kumar M, Gupta R. Keterolac vs Nefopam: comparison of single intravenous dose relieving post-operative pain following laparotomy. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 1996;28:240–243.

Lai A, Hung CT. Effect of age on recovery from remifentanil anaesthesia. Anaesth Intensive Care 2001;29(5):506–509.

Larsen VH, Iversen AD, Christensen P, Andersen PK. Postoperative pain treatment after upper abdominal surgery with epidural morphine at thoracic or lumbar level. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1985;29(6):566–571.

Lezoche E, Feliciotti F, Paganini AM, Guerrieri M, Campagnacci R, De Sanctis A. Laparoscopic colonic resections versus open surgery: a prospective non-randomized study on 310 unselected cases. Hepatogastroenterology 2000;47(33):697–708.

Mann C, Pouzeratte Y, Boccara G, Peccoux C, Vergne C, Brunat G, Domergue J, Millat B, Colson P. Comparison of intravenous or epidural patient-controlled analgesia in the elderly after major abdominal surgery. Anesthesiology 2000;92(2):433–441.

Melbert RB, Kimmins MH, Isler JT, Billingham RP, Lawton D, Salvadalena G, Cortezzo M, Rowbotham R. Use of a critical pathway for colon resections. J Gastrointest Surg 2002;6(5):745–752.

Milsom JW, Hammerhofer KA, Bohm B, Marcello P, Elson P, Fazio VW. Prospective, randomized trial comparing laparoscopic vs. conventional surgery for refractory ileocolic Crohn’s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44(1):1–8; discussion 8–9.

Moiniche S, Bulow S, Hesselfeldt P, Hestbaek A, Kehlet H. Convalescence and hospital stay after colonic surgery with balanced analgesia, early oral feeding, and enforced mobilisation. Eur J Surg 1995;161(4):283–288.

Morimoto H, Cullen JJ, Messick JM, Jr., Kelly KA. Epidural analgesia shortens postoperative ileus after ileal pouch-anal canal anastomosis. Am J Surg 1995;169(1):79–82; discussion 82–83.

Neudecker J, Schwenk W, Junghans T, Pietsch S, Bohm B, Muller JM. Randomized controlled trial to examine the influence of thoracic epidural analgesia on postoperative ileus after laparoscopic sigmoid resection. Br J Surg 1999;86(10):1292-1295.

Neudecker J, Junghans T, Ziemer S, Raue W, Schwenk W. Effect of laparoscopic and conventional colorectal resection on peritoneal fibrinolytic capacity: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Int J Colorectal Dis 2002;17(6):426–429.

Petrelli NJ, Cheng C, Driscoll D, Rodriguez-Bigas MA. Early postoperative oral feeding after colectomy: an analysis of factors that may predict failure. Ann Surg Oncol 2001;8(10):796–800.

Peyton PJ, Myles PS, Silbert BS, Rigg JA, Jamrozik K, Parsons R. Perioperative epidural analgesia and outcome after major abdominal surgery in high-risk patients. Anesth Analg 2003;96(2):548–554, table of contents.

Pietrabissa A, Moretto C, Carobbi A, Boggi U, Ghilli M, Mosca F. Hand-assisted laparoscopic low anterior resection: initial experience with a new procedure. Surg Endosc 2002;16(3):431–435.

Renzi C, Peticca L, Pescatori M. The use of relaxation techniques in the perioperative management of proctological patients: preliminary results. Int J Colorectal Dis 2000;15(5–6):313–316.

Schulze S, Lyng KM, Bugge K, Perner A, Bendtsen A, Thorup J, Nielsen HJ, Rasmussen V, Rosenberg J. Cardiovascular and respiratory changes and convalescence in laparoscopic colonic surgery: comparison between carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum and gasless laparoscopy. Arch Surg 1999;134(10):1112–1118.

Scott DA, Blake D, Buckland M, Etches R, Halliwell R, Marsland C, Merridew G, Murphy D, Paech M, Schug SA, Turner G, Walker S, Huizar K, Gustafsson U. A comparison of epidural ropivacaine infusion alone and in combination with 1, 2, and 4 microg/mL fentanyl for seventy-two hours of postoperative analgesia after major abdominal surgery. Anesth Analg 1999;88(4):857–864.

Senagore AJ, Delaney CP, Mekhail N, Dugan A, Fazio VW. Randomized clinical trial comparing epidural anaesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic segmental colectomy. Br J Surg 2003;90(10):1195-1199.

Targarona EM, Gracia E, Garriga J, Martinez-Bru C, Cortes M, Boluda R, Lerma L, Trias M. Prospective randomized trial comparing conventional laparoscopic colectomy with hand-assisted laparoscopic colectomy: applicability, immediate clinical outcome, inflammatory response, and cost. Surg Endosc 2002;16(2):234–239.

Telfer JR, Canning G, Galloway DJ. Comparative study of abdominal incision techniques. Br J Surg 1993;80(2):233–235.

Trimbos JB, Smit IB, Holm JP, Hermans J. A randomized clinical trial comparing two methods of fascia closure following midline laparotomy. Arch Surg 1992;127(10):1232–1234.

Wissing J, van Vroonhoven TJ, Schattenkerk ME, Veen HF, Ponsen RJ, Jeekel J. Fascia closure after midline laparotomy: results of a randomized trial. Br J Surg 1987;74(8):738–741.

Yoshioka K, Connolly AB, Ogunbiyi OA, Hasegawa H, Morton DG, Keighley MR. Randomized trial of oral sodium phosphate compared with oral sodium picosulphate (Picolax) for elective colorectal surgery and colonoscopy. Dig Surg 2000;17(1):66–70.