187 studies included (Click here for further information)

Included studies

Abdel-Ghaffar ME, Abdulatif MA, al-Ghamdi A, Mowafi H, Anwar A. Epidural ketamine reduces post-operative epidural PCA consumption of fentanyl/bupivacaine. Can J Anaesth 1998;45(2):103.

Aida S, Baba H, Yamakura T, Taga K, Fukuda S, Shimoji K. The effectiveness of preemptive analgesia varies according to the type of surgery: a randomized, double-blind study. Anesth Analg 1999;89(3):711–6.

Akural EI, Salomaki TE, Tekay AH, Bloigu AH, Alahuhta SM. Pre-emptive effect of epidural sufentanil in abdominal hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 2002;88(6):803–808.

Ali PB, Cotton BR, Williamson KM, Smith G. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine or lidocaine does not provide analgesia after total abdominal hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 1998;80(2):245–7.

Beck DH, Schenk MR, Hagemann K, Doepfmer UR, Kox WJ. The pharmacokinetics and analgesic efficacy of larger dose rectal acetaminophen (40 mg/kg) in adults: a double-blinded, randomized study. Anesth Analg 2000;90(2):431–436.

Behtash N, Ghaemaghami F, Modares Gilani M, Rajabi MT, Moghimi R, Hanjani P. To peritonealise or not to peritonealise? A randomised trial at abdominal hysterectomy in Iran. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2001;21(5):520–524.

Beilin B, Bessler H, Mayburd E, Smirnov G, Dekel A, Yardeni I, Shavit Y. Effects of preemptive analgesia on pain and cytokine production in the postoperative period. Anesthesiology 2003;98(1):151.

Beltrutti D, Niv D, Ben-Abraham R, Di SS, Weinbroum AA. Late antinociception and lower untoward effects of concomitant intrathecal morphine and intravenous buprenorphine in humans. J Clin Anesth 2002;14(6):441.

Black AMS, Goodman NW, Bullingham RES, Lloyd J. Intramuscular ketorolac and morphine during patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) after hysterectomy: does PCA lock-out time reveal an efficacy limitation of ketorolac? European Journal of Anaesthesiology 1990;7(1):9–17.

Blackburn A, Stevens JD, Wheatley RG, Madej TH, Hunter D. Balanced analgesia with intravenous ketorolac and patient-controlled morphine following lower abdominal surgery. J Clin Anesth 1995;7(2):103.

Block RI, Ghoneim MM, Sum PST, Ali MA. Efficacy of therapeutic suggestions for improved postoperative recovery presented during general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1991;75(5):746.

Briggs M. Surgical wound pain: a trial of two treatments. J Wound Care 1996;5(10):456.

Broome IJ, Wright BM, Bower S, Reilly CS. Postoperative analgesia with transdermal fentanyl following lower abdominal surgery. Anaesthesia 1995;50(4):300.

Buggy DJ, Toogood L, Maric S, Sharpe P, Lambert DG, Rowbotham DJ. Lack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain. Pain 2003;106(1-2):169.

Burstal R, Danjoux G, Hayes C, Lantry G. PCA ketamine and morphine after abdominal hysterectomy. Anaesth Intensive Care 2001;29(3):246.

Callesen T, Schouenborg L, Nielsen D, Guldager H, Kehlet H. Combined epidural-spinal opioid-free anaesthesia and analgesia for hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 1999;82(6):881.

Camu F, Debucquoy F. Alfentanil infusion for postoperative pain: a comparison of epidural and intravenous routes. Anesthesiology 1991;75(2):171–178.

Carta F, Cervi D, Saracchi R, Dal Pra ML, Bedoschi D. Intraoperative administration of buprenorphine vs methadone in postoperative pain management. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1987;42(6):1003–1010.

Caumo W, Hidalgo MP, Schmidt AP, Iwamoto CW, Adamatti LC, Bergmann J, Ferreira MB. Effect of pre-operative anxiolysis on postoperative pain response in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. Anaesthesia 2002;57(8):740.

Celik JB, Tuncer S, Reisli R, Sarkilar G, Celik C, Akyurek C. A comparative study of the effect of rofecoxib (a COX 2 inhibitor) and naproxen sodium on analgesic requirements after abdominal hysterectomy. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2003;268(4):297.

Chan WH, Lin CJ, Sun WZ, Tsai SP, Tsai SK, Hsieh CY. Comparison of subcutaneous hydromorphone with intramuscular meperidine for immediate postoperative analgesia. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 1999;15(7):419.

Cheung LH, Callaghan P, Chang AM. A controlled trial of psycho-educational interventions in preparing Chinese women for elective hysterectomy. Int J Nurs Stud 2003;40(2):207–216.

Chinachoti T, Niruthisard S, Tuntisirin O, Thienthong S, Khunsongkiet P, Payawal F, Camagay I, De CR. A double-blind, randomized study comparing postoperative pain management using epidural ropivacaine with intravenous ketorolac or intravenous ketorolac alone following transabdominal hysterectomy. J Med Assoc Thai 2002;85 Suppl 3:S837.

Choi JH, Lee J, Bishop MJ. Epidural naloxone reduces pruritus and nausea without affecting analgesia by epidural morphine in bupivacaine. Can J Anaesth 2000;47(1):33.

Choiniere M, Rittenhouse BE, Perreault S, Chartrand D, Rousseau P, Smith B, Pepler C. Efficacy and costs of patient-controlled analgesia versus regularly administered intramuscular opioid therapy. Anesthesiology 1998;89(6):1377–1388.

Christensen PA, Rotne M, Vedelsdal R, Jensen RH, Jacobsen K, Husted C. Electroacupuncture in anaesthesia for hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 1993;71(6):835–8.

Chui PT, Gin T. A double-blind randomised trial comparing postoperative analgesia after perioperative loading doses of methadone or morphine. Anaesth Intensive Care 1992;20(1):46–51.

Cobby TF, Crighton IM, Kyriakides K, Hobbs GJ. Rectal paracetamol has a significant morphine-sparing effect after hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 1999;83(2):253.

Cobby TF, Reid MF. Wound infiltration with local anaesthetic after abdominal hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 1997;78(4):431–2.

Coetzee JF, van LH. Tramadol or morphine administered during operation: a study of immediate postoperative effects after abdominal hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 1998;81(5):737.

Collis R, Brandner B, Bromley LM, Woolf CJ. Is there any clinical advantage of increasing the pre-emptive dose of morphine or combining pre-incisional with postoperative morphine administration? Br J Anaesth 1995;74(4):396–399.

Cruickshank RH, Spencer A, Ellis FR. Pretreatment with controlled-release morphine for pain after hysterectomy. Anaesthesia 1996;51(12):1097.

Curtis GB, Johnson GH, Clark P, Taylor R, Brown J, O’Callaghan R, Shi M, Lacouture PG. Relative potency of controlled-release oxycodone and controlled-release morphine in a postoperative pain model. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999;55(6):425.

Dahl V, Ernoe PE, Steen T, Raeder JC, White PF. Does ketamine have preemptive effects in women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy procedures? Anesth Analg 2000;90(6):1419–22.

Dakin MJ, Osinubi OY, Carli F. Preoperative spinal bupivacaine does not reduce postoperative morphine requirement in women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. Reg Anesth 1996;21(2):99.

Danou F, Paraskeva A, Vassilakopoulos T, Fassoulaki A. The analgesic efficacy of intravenous tenoxicam as an adjunct to patient-controlled analgesia in total abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth Analg 2000;90(3):672–6.

Dawson P, Van HC, Wilkinson D, Warwick P, O’Connor M. Patient-controlled analgesia and intra-operative suggestion. Anaesthesia 2001;56(1):65.

D’Haese J, Vanlersberghe C, Umbrain V, Camu F. Pharmaco-economic evaluation of a disposable patient-controlled analgesia device and intramuscular analgesia in surgical patients. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1998;15(3):297.

Dimou P, Paraskeva A, Papilas K, Fassoulaki A. Transdermal clonidine: does it affect pain after abdominal hysterectomy? Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 2003;54(3):227.

Dopfmer UR, Schenk MR, Kuscic S, Beck DH, Dopfmer S, Kox WJ. A randomized controlled double-blind trial comparing piritramide and morphine for analgesia after hysterectomy. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2001;18(6):389–393.

Egan KJ, Ready LB, Nessly M, Greer BE. Self-administration of midazolam for postoperative anxiety: a double blinded study. Pain 1992;49(1):3.

El-Falaki MM, Abu-hassan KA. Intravenous patient -controlled fentanyl with and without adaptive background infusion after abdominal hysterectomy. Journal of the Bahrain Medical Society 2000;12(3):139–142.

Ellstrom M, Olsen MF, Olsson JH, Nordberg G, Bengtsson A, Hahlin M. Pain and pulmonary function following laparoscopic and abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1998;77(9):923.

Engel C, Lund B, Kristensen SS, Axel C, Nielsen JB. Indomethacin as an analgesic after hysterectomy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1989;33(6):498–501.

Eriksson-Mjoberg M, Kristiansson M, Carlstrom K, Eklund J, Gustafsson LL, Olund A. Preoperative infiltration of bupivacaine–effects on pain relief and trauma response (cortisol and interleukin-6). Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997a;41(4):466.

Eriksson-Mjoberg M, Kristiansson M, Carlstrom K, Olund A, Eklund J. Infiltration of morphine into an abnormal wound; effects on pain relief and endocrine/immune response. Pain 1997b;73(3):355.

Eriksson-Mjoberg M, Svensson JO, Almkvist O, Olund A, Gustafsson LL. Extradural morphine gives better pain relief than patient-controlled i.v. morphine after hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 1997c;78(1):10.

Espinet A, Henderson DJ, Faccenda KA, Morrison LM. Does pre-incisional thoracic extradural block combined with diclofenac reduce postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy? Br J Anaesth 1996;76(2):209–213.

Evans C, Richardson PH. Improved recovery and reduced postoperative stay after therapeutic suggestions during general anaesthesia. Lancet 1988;2(8609):491.

Falcone T, Paraiso MF, Mascha E. Prospective randomized clinical trial of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy versus total abdominal hysterectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180(4):955–962.

Fassoulaki A, Sarantopoulos C, Zotou M, Papoulia D. Preemptive opioid analgesia does not influence pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Can J Anaesth 1995;42(2):109–13.

Fell D, Chmielewski A, Smith G. Postoperative analgesia with controlled-release morphine sulphate: comparison with intramuscular morphine. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1982;285(6335):92.

Franklin KBJ, Abbott FV, English MJM, Jeans ME, Tasker RAR, Young SN. Tryptophan-morphine interactions and postoperative pain. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior 1990;35(1):157–163.

Frerich D, Krumme U. Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of fluproquazone, propoxyphene and paracetamol in post-hysterectomy pain. Short communication. Arzneimittelforschung 1981;31(5a):925.

Fry EN. Relief of pain after surgery. A comparison of sublingual buprenorphine and intramuscular papaveretum. Anaesthesia 1979;34(6):549.

Gabbott DA, Cohen AM, Mayor AH, Niemiro LA, Thomas TA. The influence of timing of ketorolac administration on post-operative analgesic requirements following total abdominal hysterectomy. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1997;14(6):610.

Gan TJ, Ginsberg B, Glass PS, Fortney J, Jhaveri R, Perno R. Opioid-sparing effects of a low-dose infusion of naloxone in patient-administered morphine sulfate. Anesthesiology 1997;87(5):1075.

Garcia JBS, Issy AM, Saloma~o R, Sakata RK. Preemptive analgesia with epidural bupivacaine plus fentanyl in gynaecological surgery – Effects on serum interleukin-6 concentrations. Acute Pain 2002;4(1):23–26.

Garry R. Comparison of hysterectomy techniques and cost-benefit analysis. Baillieres Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1997;11(1):137–148.

Garry R, Fountain J, Mason S, Napp V, Brown J, Hawe J, Clayton R, Abbott J, Phillips G, Whittaker M, Lilford R, Bridgman S. The eVALuate study: two parallel randomised trials, one comparing laparoscopic with abdominal hysterectomy, the other comparing laparoscopic with vaginal hysterectomy. Bmj 2004;328(7432):129.

Gilliland HE, Prasad BK, Mirakhur RK, Fee JP. An investigation of the potential morphine sparing effect of midazolam. Anaesthesia 1996;51(9):808.

Gillman RD, Robertson MS. A cost-effectiveness study of intramuscular, when required, pain relief against intravenous patient-controlled pain relief after total abdominal hysterectomy. British Journal of Medical Economics 1995;9(1):73–80.

Ginsberg B, Martin G, Gan TJ, Grichnik KP, Jhaveri R, Sibert K, Sullivan FL, Muir MR, Glass PSA. Assessment of the relative clinical utility of sufentanil and morphine administered by patient controlled analgesia pumps following abdominal hysterectomy. Journal of Pharmaceutical Care in Pain and Symptom Control 2000;8(4):5–17.

Gong Z, Ye T, Yu G, Qing X. Comparison of patient-controlled analgesia with tramadol vs morphine in patients undergoing abdominal gynecological surgery. Chinese Medical Sciences Journal 2003;18(3):180–184.

Goto T, Saito H, Shinkai M, Nakata Y, Ichinose F, Morita S. Xenon provides faster emergence from anesthesia than does nitrous oxide-sevoflurane or nitrous oxide-isoflurane. Anesthesiology 1997;86(6):1273.

Gottschalk A, Schroeder F, Ufer M, Oncu A, Buerkle H, Standl T. Amantadine, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, does not enhance postoperative analgesia in women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth Analg 2001;93(1):192–196.

Goyagi T, Nishikawa T. Oral clonidine premedication enhances the quality of postoperative analgesia by intrathecal morphine. Anesth Analg 1996;82(6):1192.

Goyagi T, Tanaka M, Nishikawa T. Oral clonidine premedication enhances postoperative analgesia by epidural morphine. Anesth Analg 1999;89(6):1487.

Green DW, O’Connor L, Hanna M. Efficacy of postoperative pain treatment regimens using both buprenorphine and papaveretum sequentially after abdominal hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 1993;70(6):626.

Griffin MJ, Hughes D, Knaggs A, Donnelly MB, Boylan JF. Late-onset preemptive analgesia associated with preincisional large-dose alfentanil. Anesth Analg 1997;85(6):1317–1321.

Gupta JK, Dinas K, Khan KS. To peritonealize or not to peritonealize? A randomized trial at abdominal hysterectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;178(4):796–800.

Hannibal K, Galatius H, Hansen A, Obel E, Ejlersen E. Preoperative wound infiltration with bupivacaine reduces early and late opioid requirement after hysterectomy. Anesth Analg 1996;83(2):376–81.

Hart O, Mullee MA, Lewith G, Miller J. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of homoeopathic arnica C30 for pain and infection after total abdominal hysterectomy. J R Soc Med 1997;90(2):73–78.

Hedges A, Rose J, Leighton M, Turner P. A double-blind comparison of meptazinol with placebo in postoperative pain. J Clin Pharmacol 1977;17(2-3):125–127.

Hegi TR, Bombeli T, Seifert B, Baumann PC, Haller U, Zalunardo MP, Pasch T, Spahn DR. Effect of rofecoxib on platelet aggregation and blood loss in gynaecological and breast surgery compared with diclofenac. Br J Anaesth 2004;92(4):523–31.

Henderson DJ, Withington BS, Wilson JA, Morrison LM. Perioperative dextromethorphan reduces postoperative pain after hysterectomy. Anesth Analg 1999;89(2):399–402.

Hercock T, Gillham MJ, Sleigh J, Jones SF. The addition of ketamine to patient controlled morphine analgesia does not improve quality of analgesia after total abdominal hysterectomy. Acute Pain 1999;2(2):68–72.

Hindsholm KB, Bredahl C, Jensen MK, Kidmose L, Herlevsen P, Nielsen FB, Olesen AS. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of morphine–an alternative to extradural morphine for postoperative pain relief. Br J Anaesth 1993;71(4):580.

Ho ST, Wang JJ, Liu HS, Tzeng JI, Liaw WJ. The analgesic effect of PCA buprenorphine in Taiwan’s gynecologic patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Sin 1997;35(4):195.

Howard FM, Sanchez R. A comparison of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy and abdominal hysterectomy. J Gynecol Surg 1993;9(2):83.

Hwang JL, Seow KM, Tsai YL, Huang LW, Hsieh BC, Lee C. Comparative study of vaginal, laparoscopically assisted vaginal and abdominal hysterectomies for uterine myoma larger than 6 cm in diameter or uterus weighing at least 450 g: a prospective randomized study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2002;81(12):1132.

Ilias W, Jansen M. Pain control after hysterectomy: an observer-blind, randomised trial of lornoxicam versus tramadol. Br J Clin Pract 1996;50(4):197–202.

Ilkjaer S, Bach LF, Nielsen PA, Wernberg M, Dahl JB. Effect of preoperative oral dextromethorphan on immediate and late postoperative pain and hyperalgesia after total abdominal hysterectomy. Pain 2000;86(1-2):19–24.

Jahangir SM, Islam F, Aziz L. Ketamine infusion for postoperative analgesia in asthmatics: a comparison with intermittent meperidine. Anesth Analg 1993;76(1):45.

Jorgensen BC, Andersen HB, Engquist A. Influence of epidural morphine on postoperative pain, endocrine-metabolic, and renal responses to surgery. A controlled study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1982;26(1):63.

Jorgensen BC, Schmidt JF, Risbo A, Pedersen J, Kolby P. Regular interval preventive pain relief compared with on demand treatment after hysterectomy. Pain 1985;21(2):137–142.

Jorgensen H, Fomsgaard JS, Dirks J, Wetterslev J, Andreasson B, Dahl JB. Effect of epidural bupivacaine vs combined epidural bupivacaine and morphine on gastrointestinal function and pain after major gynaecological surgery. Br J Anaesth 2001a;87(5):727.

Jorgensen H, Fomsgaard JS, Dirks J, Wetterslev J, Andreasson B, Dahl JB. Effect of peri- and postoperative epidural anaesthesia on pain and gastrointestinal function after abdominal hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 2001b;87(4):577.

Jorgensen H, Fomsgaard JS, Dirks J, Wetterslev J, Dahl JB. Effect of continuous epidural 0.2% ropivacaine vs 0.2% bupivacaine on postoperative pain, motor block and gastrointestinal function after abdominal hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 2000;84(2):144.

Kain ZN, Sevarino FB, Rinder C, Pincus S, Alexander GM, Ivy M, Heninger G. Preoperative anxiolysis and postoperative recovery in women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Anesthesiology 2001;94(3):415–422.

Kara H, Sahin N, Ulusan V, Aydogdu T. Magnesium infusion reduces perioperative pain. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2002;19(1):52.

Katz J, Clairoux M, Redahan C, Kavanagh BP, Carroll S, Nierenberg H, Jackson M, Beattie J, Taddio A, Sandler AN. High dose alfentanil pre-empts pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Pain 1996;68(1):109–18.

Kilickan L, Toker K. The effect of preemptive intravenous morphine on postoperative analgesia and surgical stress response. Panminerva Med 2001;43(3):171.

Kim MH, Hahm TS. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 are affected by ketorolac as an adjunct to patient-controlled morphine after abdominal hysterectomy. Clin J Pain 2001;17(1):72.

Klein JR, Heaton JP, Thompson JP, Cotton BR, Davidson AC, Smith G. Infiltration of the abdominal wall with local anaesthetic after total abdominal hysterectomy has no opioid-sparing effect. Br J Anaesth 2000;84(2):248–9.

Knoche E, Dick W, Bowdler I, Gundlach G. Clinical experimental studies of postoperative infusion analgesia. Clin Ther 1983;5(6):585–594.

Ko SH, Lim HR, Kim DC, Han YJ, Choe H, Song HS. Magnesium sulfate does not reduce postoperative analgesic requirements. Anesthesiology 2001;95(3):640.

Kopp A, Wachauer D, Hoerauf KH, Zulus E, Reiter WJ, Steltzer H. Effect of pre-emptive hydromorphone administration on postoperative pain relief–a randomized controlled trial. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2000;112(23):1002.

Kristensen BB, Christensen DS, Ostergaard M, Skjelsager K, Nielsen D, Mogensen TS. Lack of postoperative pain relief after hysterectomy using preperitoneally administered bupivacaine. Reg Anesth Pain Med 1999;24(6):576–580.

Kvalsvik O, Borchgrevink PC, Hagen L, Dale O. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of rectal paracetamol on morphine consumption after abdominal hysterectomy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2003;47(4):451.

Lauretti GR, Hood DD, Eisenach JC, Pfeifer BL. A multi-center study of intrathecal neostigmine for analgesia following vaginal hysterectomy. Anesthesiology 1998a;89(4):913–918.

Lauretti GR, Mattos AL, Reis MP, Pereira NL. Combined intrathecal fentanyl and neostigmine: therapy for postoperative abdominal hysterectomy pain relief. J Clin Anesth 1998b;10(4):291.

Leung CC, Chan YM, Ngai SW, Ng KF, Tsui SL. Effect of pre-incision skin infiltration on post-hysterectomy pain–a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Anaesth Intensive Care 2000;28(5):510–516.

Liu K, Chia YY, Lo Y, Kan YY, Wang JJ, Ho ST. Effect of preoperative transdermal ketoprofen on post-hysterectomy pain. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) 1997a;60(6):290.

Liu WH, Standen PJ, Aitkenhead AR. Therapeutic suggestions during general anaesthesia in patients undergoing hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 1992;68(3):277.

Liu Z, Tian Y, Zhang C, Jin S. Clinical study of epidural analgesia with clonidine and sumatriptan in posthysterectomy. J Tongji Med Univ 1997b;17(3):172–176.

Lund C, Qvitzau S, Greulich A, Hjortso NC, Kehlet H. Comparison of the effects of extradural clonidine with those of morphine on postoperative pain, stress responses, cardiopulmonary function and motor and sensory block. Br J Anaesth 1989;63(5):516.

Madej TH, Wheatley RG, Jackson IJ, Hunter D. Hypoxaemia and pain relief after lower abdominal surgery: comparison of extradural and patient-controlled analgesia. Br J Anaesth 1992;69(6):554.

Mais V, Peiretti R, Melis GB, De Cecco L, Ferraiolo A, Gorlero E, Genazzani A, Facchinetti A, Massi GB, Amunni G. Intramuscular tramadol in gynaecological postoperative pain: Multicentre controlled clinical trial against ketorolac. Italian Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 1997;9(1):33–39.

Mansfield M, Meikle R, Miller C. A trial of pre-emptive analgesia. Influence of timing of peroperative alfentanil on postoperative pain and analgesic requirements. Anaesthesia 1994;49(12):1091–3.

Mansfield MD, James KS, Kinsella J. Influence of dose and timing of administration of morphine on postoperative pain and analgesic requirements. Br J Anaesth 1996;76(3):358.

Marana E, Pintaudi M, Stefanelli A, Maussier ML, Marana R. Control of the postoperative acute pain and neuroendocrine response after vaginal hysterectomy: Comparison of three different methods. Acta Anaesthesiologica Italica 1991;42(1):105-112.

McConaghy PM, McSorley P, McCaughey W, Campbell WI. Dextromethorphan and pain after total abdominal hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 1998;81(5):731-6.

McLintock TT, Aitken H, Downie CF, Kenny GN. Postoperative analgesic requirements in patients exposed to positive intraoperative suggestions. BMJ 1990;301(6755):788.

Millar AY, Mansfield MD, Kinsella J. Influence of timing of morphine administration on postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. Br J Anaesth 1998;81(3):373–376.

Miskry T, Magos A. Randomized, prospective, double-blind comparison of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy in women without uterovaginal prolapse. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2003;82(4):351–358.

Mogan J, Wells N, Robertson E. Effects of preoperative teaching on postoperative pain: a replication and expansion. Int J Nurs Stud 1985;22(3):267.

Mogensen T, Eliasen K, Ejlersen E, Vegger P, Nielsen IK, Kehlet H. Epidural clonidine enhances postoperative analgesia from a combined low-dose epidural bupivacaine and morphine regimen. Anesth Analg 1992;75(4):607.

Montes A, Warner W, Puig MM. Use of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for the documentation of synergy between tramadol and metamizol. Br J Anaesth 2000;85(2):217.

Moore RA, Bullingham RE, Simpson S, O’Sullivan G, Evans PJ, McQuay HJ, Lloyd JW. Comparison of flupirtine maleate and dihydrocodeine in patients following surgery. Br J Anaesth 1983;55(5):429.

Moores MA, Frater R, Parry P, Hanning CD. Double-blind comparison of the efficacy and safety of single doses of meptazinol as a suppository and morphine by i.m. injection. Br J Anaesth 1988;60(5):542.

Murdoch CJ, Crooks BA, Miller CD. Effect of the addition of ketamine to morphine in patient-controlled analgesia. Anaesthesia 2002;57(5):484.

Murga G, Samso E, Valles J, Casanovas P, Puig MM. The effect of clonidine on intra-operative requirements of fentanyl during combined epidural/general anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 1994;49(11):999.

Nakayama M, Ichinose H, Nakabayashi K, Satoh O, Yamamoto S, Namiki A. Analgesic effect of epidural neostigmine after abdominal hysterectomy. J Clin Anesth 2001a;13(2):86.

Nakayama M, Ichinose H, Yamamoto S, Nakabayashi K, Satoh O, Namiki A. Perioperative intravenous flurbiprofen reduces postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Can J Anaesth 2001b;48(3):234.

Nelskyla K, Eriksson H, Soikkeli A, Korttila K. Recovery and outcome after propofol and isoflurane anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997;41(3):360.

Ng A, Parker J, Toogood L, Cotton BR, Smith G. Does the opioid-sparing effect of rectal diclofenac following total abdominal hysterectomy benefit the patient? Br J Anaesth 2002a;88(5):714–716.

Ng A, Smith G, Davidson AC. Analgesic effects of parecoxib following total abdominal hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 2003;90(6):746.

Ng A, Swami A, Smith G, Davidson AC, Emembolu J. The analgesic effects of intraperitoneal and incisional bupivacaine with epinephrine after total abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth Analg 2002b;95(1):158.

Nilsson U, Rawal N, Unestahl LE, Zetterberg C, Unosson M. Improved recovery after music and therapeutic suggestions during general anaesthesia: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2001;45(7):812–817.

Nimmo WS, Todd JG. Fentanyl by constant rate i.v. infusion for postoperative analgesia. Br J Anaesth 1985;57(3):250–4.

Olsson JH, Ellstrom M, Hahlin M. A randomised prospective trial comparing laparoscopic and abdominal hysterectomy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1996;103(4):345–350.

Owen MD, Fibuch EE, McQuillan R, Millington WR. Postoperative analgesia using a low-dose, oral-transdermal clonidine combination: lack of clinical efficacy. J Clin Anesth 1997;9(1):8–14.

Parke TJ, Lowson SM, Uncles DR, Daughtery MO, Sitzman BT. Pre-emptive versus post-surgical administration of ketorolac for hysterectomy. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1995;12(6):549–553.

Parker RK, Holtmann B, Smith I, White PF. Use of ketorolac after lower abdominal surgery. Effect on analgesic requirement and surgical outcome. Anesthesiology 1994;80(1):6–12.

Peat SJ, Bras P, Hanna MH. A double-blind comparison of epidural ketamine and diamorphine for postoperative analgesia. Anaesthesia 1989;44(7):555.

Persson K, Lundberg J. Perioperative hypothermia and postoperative opioid requirements. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2001;18(10):679–686.

Pinnock CA, Derbyshire DR, Elling AE, Smith G. Comparison of oral slow release morphine (MST) with intramuscular morphine for premedication. Anaesthesia 1985;40(11):1082.

Pitschas D, Jage J, Henrich-Eberl C. A double blind placebo-controlled study on the rectal administration of morphine as a premedication in abdominal hysterectomy. Acute Pain 2000;3(2):70–76.

Rane K, Sollevi A, Segerdahl M. Intrathecal adenosine administration in abdominal hysterectomy lacks analgesic effect. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2000;44(7):868.

Richards JT, Read JR, Chambers WA. Epidural anaesthesia as a method of pre-emptive analgesia for abdominal hysterectomy. Anaesthesia 1998;53(3):296.

Richardson RE, Bournas N, Magos AL. Is laparoscopic hysterectomy a waste of time? Lancet 1995;345(8941):36.

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