123 studies excluded (Click here for further information)

Excluded studies 

Abuzaid H, Prys-Roberts C, Wilkins DG, Terry DM. The influence of diamorphine on spinal anaesthesia induced with isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine. Anaesthesia 1993;48(6):492–495.

Adams HA, Tengler R, Hempelmann G. [The stress reaction in the recovery phase from halothane and isoflurane anesthesia.] German. Anaesthesist 1991;40(8):446–451.

Aitola P, Airo I, Matikainen M. Laparoscopic versus open preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair: a prospective randomised trial. Ann Chir Gynaecol 1998;87(1):22–25.

Alsarrage SAM, Godbole CSM. A randomised controlled trial to compare local with general anaesthesia for inguinal hernia repair. Journal of the Kuwait Medical Association 1990;24(1):31–34.

Anderson AD, McNaught CE, MacFie J, Tring I, Barker P, Mitchell CJ. Randomised clinical trial of multimodal optimization and standard perioperative surgical care. Br J Surg 2003;90(12):1497–1504.

Arroyo A, Garcia P, Perez F, Andreu J, Candela F, Calpena R. Randomised clinical trial comparing suture and mesh repair of umbilical hernia in adults. Br J Surg 2001;88(10):1321–1323.

Azurin DJ, Go LS, Cwik JC, Schuricht AL. The efficacy of epidural anesthesia for endoscopic preperitoneal hemiorrhaphy: A prospective study. J Laparoendosc Surg 1996;6(6):369–373.

Baker SB, Wong CC, Wong PC, Jenkins LC. Transcutaneous electrostimulation in the management of postoperative pain: initial report. Can Anaesth Soc J 1980;27(2):150–155.

Barkun JS, Wexler MJ, Hinchey EJ, Thibeault D, Meakins JL. Laparoscopic versus open inguinal herniorrhaphy: preliminary results of a randomised controlled trial. Surgery 1995;118(4):703–709; discussion 709–710.

Behnia R, Hashemi F, Stryker SJ, Ujiki GT, Poticha SM. A comparison of general versus local anesthesia during inguinal herniorrhaphy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1992;174(4):277–280.

Berliner SD, Petrini AJ. Hypothermia during herniorrhaphy using local anesthesia with sedation. Hernia 2000;4(4):192–194.

Brygel M. Inguinal herniorrhaphy under local anaesthetic. Aust Fam Physician 1985;14(12):1356–1358.

Cheng JK, Pan MH, Wu KH, Mok MS, Wei TT. Epidural phenylephrine attenuates hypotension induced by alkalinized lidocaine epidural anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1999;88(6):1322–1326.

Connelly NR, Reuben SS, Albert M, Page D. Use of preincisional ketorolac in hernia patients: intravenous versus surgical site. Reg Anesth 1997;22(3):229–232.


Connelly NR, Reuben SS, Albert M, Page D, Gibson CS, Moineau A, Dixon KL, Maciolek H. Use of clonidine in hernia patients: intramuscular versus surgical site. Reg Anesth Pain Med 1999;24(5):422–425.


Corbitt JD, Jr. Laparoscopic herniorrhaphy. Surg Laparosc Endosc 1991;1(1):23–25.

Cunniffe MG, McAnena OJ, Dar MA, Calleary J, Flynn N. A prospective randomised trial of intraoperative bupivacaine irrigation for management of shoulder-tip pain following laparoscopy. Am J Surg 1998;176(3):258–261.

Deans GT, Richardson T, Wilson MS, Brough WA. Absorption of bupivacaine from the pre-peritoneal space in laparoscopic hernia repair. Minimally Invasive Therapy 1995;4(3):175–177.

Deans GT, Wilson MS, Brough WA. Controlled trial of preperitoneal local anaesthetic for reducing pain following laparoscopic hernia repair. see comment. Br J Surg 1998;85(7):1013–1014.

Dunn DC, Wijesinghe LD, Pollard SG, Collier Collier DSJ. Post-operative rehabilitation following laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Minimally Invasive Therapy 1994;3(3):159–162.

Edwards AE, Gemmell LW, Mankin PP, Smith CJ, Allen JC, Hunter A. The effects of three differing anaesthetics on the immune response. Anaesthesia 1984;39(11):1071– 1078.

Edwards AE, Smith CJ, Gower DE, Williams CP, Ferguson BJM, Gough J, Gemmell LW. Anaesthesia, trauma, stress and leucocyte migration: Influence of general anaesthesia and surgery. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1990;7(3):185–196.

Ellis FR, Zwana SL. A study of body temperatures of anaesthetized man in the tropics. Br J Anaesth 1977;49(11):1123–1126.

Erdem E, Sungurtekin H, Sungurtekin U, Tetik C, Ozden A. Comparison of local and spinal anesthesia techniques in inguinal hernia repair. Ambulatory Surgery 2003;10(3):128–132.

Ezri T, Szmuk P, Shklar B, Katz J, Geva D. Oral clonidine premedication does not prolong analgesia after herniorrhaphy under subarachnoid anesthesia. Jl Clin Anesth 1998;10(6):474–81.

Fellows IW, Yeoman PM, Selby C, Byrne AJ. The effect of anaesthetic induction with etomidate on the endocrine response to surgical trauma. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1985;2(3):285–290.

Fernandez-Vazquez AS, Rodriguez-Valdes C, Medina JS. Sympathetic blockade: Comparison between isobaric bupivacaine and hyperbaric bupivacaine in subarachnoid locoregional anesthesia. Revista de la Sociedad Espanola del Dolor 1999;6(4):263–268.

Ferzli G, Massaad A, Albert P, Worth Jr MH. Endoscopic extraperitoneal herniorrhaphy versus conventional hernia repair: A comparative study. Curr Surg 1993;50(4):291–294.

Fierro G, Sanfilippo M, D’Andrea V, Biancari F, Zema M, Vilardi V. Transabdominal preperitoneal laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy (TPLIH) under regional anaesthesia. Int Surg 1997;82(2):205–207.

Fitzgibbons RJ, Jr., Camps J, Cornet DA, Nguyen NX, Litke BS, Annibali R, Salerno GM. Laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy. Results of a multicenter trial. see comment. Ann Surg 1995;221(1):3–13.

Fitzgibbons RJ, Jonasson O, Gibbs J, Dunlop DD, Henderson W, Reda D, Giobbie-Hurder A, McCarthy M. The development of a clinical trial to determine if watchful waiting is an acceptable alternative to routine herniorrhaphy for patients with minimal or no hernia symptoms. J Am Coll Surg 2003;196(5):737–742.

Flaherty GG, Fitzpatrick JJ. Relaxation technique to increase comfort level of postoperative patients: a preliminary study. Nursg Res 1978;27(6):352–355.

Friis E, Lindahl F. The tension-free hernioplasty in a randomised trial. see comment. Am J Surg 1996;172(4):315–319.

Garcia LM. Inguinal hernia repair under field block anesthesia. Del Med J 1980;52(7):381–383.

Gardiner AS. Balanced anaesthesia for inguinal herniorrhaphy. Anaesthesia 1971;26(3):369–370.

Ghabash M, Matta M, Kehhale J. Preanesthetic wrapping of legs for prevention of spinal induced hypotension. Middle East J Anesthesiol 1997;14(2):117–124.

Gilbert HW, Everett WG. Clips or sutures for herniorrhaphy wounds? Br J Clin Pract 1990;44(8):306–308.

Godfrey PJ, Greenan J, Ranasinghe DD, Shabestary SM, Pollock AV. Ventilatory capacity after three methods of anaesthesia for inguinal hernia repair: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Surg 1981;68(8):587–589.

Gratadour P, Viale JP, Parlow J, Sagnard P, Counioux H, Bagou G, Annat G, Hughson R, Quintin L. Sympathovagal effects of spinal anesthesia assessed by the spontaneous cardiac baroreflex. Anesthesiology 1997;87(6):1359–1367.

Guillen J, Aldrete JA. Anesthetic factors influencing morbidity and mortality of elderly patients undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy. Am J Surg 1970;120(6):760–763.

Guzman-Valdivia Gomez G. Mesh prosthesis versus triangular flap from the anterior sheath of the abdominal rectus muscle in primary inguinal hernia repair. J Invest Surg 2003;16(1):45–50.

Hashemi K, Middleton MD. Subcutaneous bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia after herniorrhaphy. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1983;65(1):38–39.

Helbling C, Schlumpf R. Sutureless Lichtenstein: first results of a prospective randomised clinical trial. Hernia 2003;7(2):80–84.

Hetzer FH, Hotz T, Steinke W, Schlumpf R, Decurtins M, Largiader F. Gold standard for inguinal hernia repair: Shouldice or Lichtenstein? Hernia 1999;3(3):117–120.

Hirano T, Yoshioka H. Post-operative urinary retention after inguinal herniorrhaphy with spinal anaesthesia. Medical Science Research 1993;21(18):693–694.

Ho YH, Alagaratnam TT. Inguinal herniorrhaphy under local anaesthesia in Hong Kong. Journal of the Hong Kong Medical Association 1990;42(2):83–85.

Jenkinson C, Lawrence K, McWhinnie D, Gordon J. Sensitivity to change of health status measures in a randomised controlled trial: comparison of the COOP charts and the SF-36. Qual Life Res 1995;4(1):47–52.

Job CA, Fernandez MA, Dorph DJ, Betcher AM. Inguinal hernia repair. Comparison of local, epidural, and general anesthesia. NY State J Med 1979;79(11):1730–1733.

Johansson B, Hallerback B, Glise H, Anesten B, Smedberg S, Roman J. Laparoscopic mesh versus open preperitoneal mesh versus conventional technique for inguinal hernia repair: a randomised multicenter trial (SCUR Hernia Repair Study). Ann Surg 1999;230(2):225–231.

Juul P, Christensen K. Randomised clinical trial of laparoscopic versus open inguinal hernia repair. see comment. Br J Surg 1999;86(3):316–319.

Kalman SH, Bengtsson M, Martensson J. Liver function and halothane-diethyl-ether azeotrope anaesthesia. Re-evaluation of an obsolete drug with special reference to early postoperative effects. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1995;39(1):34–8.

Kerrigan DD, Thevasagayam RS, Woods TO, McWelch I, Thomas WEG, Shorthouse AJ, Dennison AR. Who’s afraid of informed consent? BMJ 1993;306(6873):298–300.

Khazam A, Klausner JM, Lelcuk S. Enhanced thromboxane synthesis with extradural anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 1990;64(2):238–239.

Kingsley D, Vogt DM, Nelson MT, Curet MJ, Pitcher DE. Laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay inguinal herniorrhaphy. Am J Surg 1998;176(6):548–553.

Kingsnorth AN, Hyland ME, Porter CA, Sodergren S. Prospective double-blind randomised study comparing Perfix(TM) plug-and-patch with Lichtenstein patch in inguinal hernia repair: One year quality of life results. Hernia 2000;4(4):255–258.

Knapp RW, Mullen JT. Clinical evalation of the the of local anesthesia for repair of inguinal hernia. Am Surg 1976;42(12):908–910.

Korman JE, Hiatt JR, Feldmar D, Phillips EH. Mesh configurations in laparoscopic extraperitoneal herniorrhaphy. A comparison of techniques. Surg Endosc 1997;11(11):1102–1105.

Kovacs JB, Gorog D, Szabo J, Fehervari I, Jaray J, Perner F. Prospective randomised trial comparing Shouldice and Bassini-Kirschner operation technique in primary inguinal hernia repair. Acta Chira Hung 1997;36(1–4):179–181.

Kumar S, Gupta RL, Chawla R. Efficacy and safety of promethazine hydrochloride as a local anaesthetic agent for inguinal hernia repair: a pilot study. Br J Clin Practe 1997;51(1):33–35.

Kux M, Fuchsjager N, Schemper M. Shouldice is superior to Bassini inguinal herniorrhaphy. Am J Surg 1994;168(1):15–18.

Lau H, Lee F, Patil NG, Yuen WK. Early outcomes of laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repair versus open tension-free mesh hernioplasty. Asian J Surg 2000;23(3):244–248.

Lau H, Lee F. Determinant factors of pain after ambulatory inguinal herniorrhaphy: a multi-variate analysis. Hernia 2001;5(1):17–20.

Lau H, Patil NG, Lee F, Yuen WK. A prospective trial of analgesia following endoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernioplasty: Local wound infiltration vs extraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine. Surg Endosc 2002;16(1):159–162.

Lau H, Lee F. A prospective comparative study of needlescopic and conventional endoscopic extraperitoneal inguinal hernioplasty. Surg Endosc 2002;16(12):1737–1740.

Lau H, Lee F. Lessons learned from ligation of indirect hernia sac: an alternative to reduction during endoscopic extraperitoneal inguinal hernioplasty. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2002;12(6):419–423.

Lau H, Patil NG. Umbilical hernia in adults: Laparoscopic vs open repair. Surg Endosc 2003;17(12):2016–2020.

Leaverton GH, Garnjobst W. Comparison of morbidity after spinal and local anesthesia in inguinal hernia repair. Am Surg 1972;38(11):591–593.

Leibl BJ, Daubler P, Schmedt CG, Kraft K, Bittner R. Long-term results of a randomised clinical trial between laparoscopic hernioplasty and shouldice repair. Br J Surg 2000;87(6):780–783.

Liem MS, van Duyn EB, van der Graaf Y, van Vroonhoven TJ, Coala Trial G. Recurrences after conventional anterior and laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: a randomised comparison. Ann Surg 2003;237(1):136–141.

Makuria T, Alexander-Williams J, Keighley MR. Comparison between general and local anaesthesia for repair of groin hernias. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1979;61(4):291–294.

Markey JR, Montiague R, Winnie AP. A comparative efficacy study of hyperbaric 5% lidocaine and 1.5% lidocaine for spinal anesthesia. see comment. Anesth Analg 1997;85(5):1105–1107.

Mathews S, Al Mulla A, Varghese PK, Radim K, Mumtaz S. Postanaesthetic shivering – A new look at tramadol. Anaesthesia 2002;57(4):394–398.

McEvoy A, Livingstone JI, Cahill CJ. Comparison of diclofenac sodium and morphine sulphate for postoperative analgesia after day case inguinal hernia surgery. see comment. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1996;78(4):363–366.

McGregor RR, Allan LG, Sharpe RM, Thornton C, Newton DEF. Effect of remifentanil on the auditory evoked response and haemodynamic changes after intubation and surgical incision. Br J Anaesth 1998;81(5):785–786.

McLoughlin J, Kelley CJ. Study of the effectiveness of bupivicaine infiltration of the ilioinguinal nerve at the time of hernia repair for post-operative pain relief. Br J Clin Pract 1989;43(8):281–283.

Meier DE, Nkor SK, Aasa D, OlaOlorun DA, Tarpley JL. Prospective randomised comparison of two preoperative skin preparation techniques in a developing world country. World J Surg 2001;25(4):441–443.

Millikan KW, Kosik ML, Doolas A. A prospective comparison of transabdominal preperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair versus traditional open hernia repair in a university setting. Surg Laparosc Endosc 1994;4(4):247–253.

Mixter CG, 3rd, Meeker LD, Gavin TJ. Preemptive pain control in patients having laparoscopic hernia repair: a comparison of ketorolac and ibuprofen. Arch Surg 1998;133(4):432–437.

Morris J. Monitoring post-operative effects in day-surgery patients. Nurs Times 1995;91(10):32–34.

Anonymous. Laparoscopic versus open repair of groin hernia: a randomised comparison. The MRC Laparoscopic Groin Hernia Trial Group. see comment. Lancet 1999;354(9174):185–190.

Mulroy MF, Greengrass R, Ganapathy S, Chan V, Heierson A. Sameridine is safe and effective for spinal anesthesia: a comparative dose-ranging study with lidocaine for inguinal hernia repair. Anesth Analg 1999b;88(4):815–821.

Musella M, Guido A, Musella S. Collagen tampons as aminoglycoside carriers to reduce postoperative infection rate in prosthetic repair of groin hernias. Eur J Surg 2001;167(2):130–132.

Naja MZ, el Hassan MJ, Oweidat M, Zbibo R, Ziade MF, Lonnqvist PA. Paravertebral blockade vs general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia for inguinal hernia repair. Middle East J Anesthesiol 2001;16(2):201–210.

Naja Z, Ziade MF, Lonnqvist PA. Bilateral paravertebral somatic nerve block for ventral hernia repair. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2002;19(3):197–202.

Nilsson U, Rawal N, Enqvist B, Unosson M. Analgesia following music and therapeutic suggestions in the PACU in ambulatory surgery; a randomised controlled trial. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2003;47(3):278–283.

Nilsson U, Rawal N, Unosson M. A comparison of intra-operative or postoperative exposure to music–a controlled trial of the effects on postoperative pain. Anaesthesia 2003;58(7):699–703.

O’Connor SA, Wilkinson DJ. A double-blind study of the respiratory effects of nalbuphine hydrochloride in spontaneously breathing anesthetized patients. Anesth Analg 1988;67(4):324–328.

Ofili OP. A comparison of wound complications after inguinal hernia repair under local and general anaesthesia. Trop Doc 1991;21(1):40–41.

O’Riordain DS, Kelly P, Horgan PG, Keane FB, Tanner WA. A randomized controlled trial of extraperitoneal bupivacaine analgesia in laparoscopic hernia repair. Am J Surg 1998;176(3):254–257.

Paajanen H. Do absorbable mesh sutures cause less chronic pain than nonabsorbable sutures after Lichtenstein inguinal herniorraphy? Hernia 2002;6(1):26–28.

Pavlidis TE, Atmatzidis KS, Lazaridis CN, Papaziogas BT, Makris JG, Papaziogas TB. Comparison between modern mesh and conventional non-mesh methods of inguinal hernia repair. Minerva Chir 2002;57(1):7–12.

Pollock JE, Neal JM, Stephenson CA, Wiley CE. Prospective study of the incidence of transient radicular irritation in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia. see comment. Anesthesiology 1996;84(6):1361–1367.

Porrero Carro JL, Sanchez-Cabezudo Diaz-Guerra C, Wong PL. Study of unilateral postherniorraphy analgesia with local anaesthetic and monitored anaesthesia care. Ambulatory Surgery 1998;6(4):211–214.

Prado E, Herrera MF, Letayf V. Inguinal herniorrhaphy under local anesthesia: a study of intraoperative tolerance. Am Surg 1994;60(8):617–619.

Rakower SR. Outpatient inguinal hernia surgery using local anesthesia. Ariz Med 1984;41(12):811–814.

Ramella G, Costagli V, Vetere M, Capra C, Casella G, Sogni A, Scaricabarozzi I. Comparison of nimesulide and diclofenac in the prevention and treatment of painful inflammatory postoperative complications of general surgery. Drugs 1993;46(Suppl 1):159–161.

Ramirez-Ruiz M, Smith I, White PF. Use of analgesics during propofol sedation: A comparison of ketorolac, dezocine, and fentanyl. J Clin Anesth 1995;7(6):481–485.

Rowbotham DJ, Peacock JE, Jones RM, Speedy HM, Sneyd JR, Morris RW, Nolan JP, Jolliffe D, Lang G. Comparison of remifentanil in combination with isoflurane or propofol for short-stay surgical procedures. Br J Anaesth 1998;80(6):752–755.

Rudkin GE, Maddern GJ. Peri-operative outcome for day-case laparoscopic and open inguinal hernia repair. see comment. Anaesthesia 1995;50(7):586–589.

Saff GN, Marks RA, Kuroda M, Rozan JP, Hertz R. Analgesic effect of bupivacaine on extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair. Anesth Analg 1998;87(2):377–381.

Sarli L, Villa F, Marchesi F. Hernioplasty and simultaneous laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective randomised study of open tension-free versus laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Surgery 2001;129(5):530–536.

Schultz LS, Graber JN, Pietrafitta J, Hickok DF. Early results with laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy are promising. Clin Laser Mon 1990;8(7):103–105.

Serpell JW, Johnson CD, Jarrett PE. A prospective study of bilateral inguinal hernia repair. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1990;72(5):299–303.

Simpson JE, Glynn CJ, Cox AG, Folkard S. Comparative study of short-term recovery of mental efficiency after anaesthesia. BMJ 1976;1(6025):1560–1562.

Simpson PJ, Hughes DR, Long DH. Prolonged local analgesia for inguinal herniorrhaphy with bupivacaine and dextran. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1982;64(4):243–246.

Smith AI, Royston CM, Sedman PC. Stapled and nonstapled laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) inguinal hernia repair. A prospective randomised trial. see comment. Surg Endosc 1999;13(8):804–806.

Suter M, Martinet O. Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction after bilateral inguinal hernia repair: a prospective randomised study comparing the Stoppa procedure with laparoscopic total extraperitoneal repair (TEPP). Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Techn 2002a;12(6):420–425.

Suter M, Martinet O, Spertini F. Reduced acute phase response after laparoscopic total extraperitoneal bilateral hernia repair compared to open repair with the Stoppa procedure. Surg Endosc 2002b;16(8):1214–1219.

Tverskoy M, Oren M, Vaskovich M, Dashkovsky I, Kissin I. Ketamine enhances local anesthetic and analgesic effects of bupivacaine by peripheral mechanism: a study in postoperative patients. see comment. Neurosci Lett 1996;215(1):5–8.

Twersky RS, Lebovits A, Williams C, Sexton TR. Ketorolac versus fentanyl for postoperative pain management in outpatients. Clin J Pain 1995;11(2):127–133.

Van Hee R, Goverde P, Hendrickx L, Van der Schelling G, Totte E. Laparoscopic transperitoneal versus extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair: a prospective clinical trial. Acta Chir Belg 1998;98(3):132–135.

Vatansev C, Belviranli M, Aksoy F, Tuncer S, Sahin M, Karahan O. The effects of different hernia repair methods on postoperative pain medication and CRP levels. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2002;12(4):243–246.

Vogt DM, Curet MJ, Pitcher DE, Martin DT, Zucker KA. Preliminary results of a prospective randomised trial of laparoscopic onlay versus conventional inguinal herniorrhaphy. see comment. Am J Surg 1995;169(1):84–89; discussion 89–90.

Vrijland WW, van den Tol MP, Luijendijk RW, Hop WC, Busschbach JJ, de Lange DC, van Geldere D, Rottier AB, Vegt PA, JN IJ, Jeekel J. Randomised clinical trial of non-mesh versus mesh repair of primary inguinal hernia. Br J Surg 2002;89(3):293–297.

Waechter FL, Sampaio JA, Pinto RD, Alvares-Da-Silva MR, Pereira-Lima L. A comparison between topical and infiltrative bupivacaine and intravenous meperidine for postoperative analgesia after inguinal herniorrhaphy. Am Surg 2001;67(5):447–450.

Wassef MR, Randazzo T, Ward W. The paravertebral nerve root block for inguinal herniorrhaphy–a comparison with the field block approach. Reg Anesth Pain Med 1998;23(5):451–456.

Weinbroum AA, Gorodezky A, Niv D, Ben-Abraham R, Rudick V, Szold A. Dextromethorphan attenuation of postoperative pain and primary and secondary thermal hyperalgesia. Can J Anaesth 2001;48(2):167–174.

Wilson MS, Deans GT, Brough WA. Prospective trial comparing Lichtenstein with laparoscopic tension-free mesh repair of inguinal hernia. see comment. Br J Surg 1995;82(2):274–277.

Wood GJ, Lloyd JW, Bullingham RE, Britton BJ, Finch DR. Postoperative analgesia for day-case herniorrhaphy patients. A comparison of cryoanalgesia, paravertebral blockade and oral analgesia. Anaesthesia 1981;36(6):603–610.

Wright D, Paterson C, Scott N, Hair A, O’Dwyer PJ. Five-year follow-up of patients undergoing laparoscopic or open groin hernia repair: A randomised controlled trial. Ann Surg 2002;235(3):333–337.

Wulf H, Worthmann F, Behnke H, Bohle AS. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ropivacaine 2 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, or 7.5 mg/mL after ilioinguinal blockade for inguinal hernia repair in adults. Anesth Analg 1999;89(6):1471–1474.

Yerdel MA, Akin EB, Dolalan S, Turkcapar AG, Pehlivan M, Gecim IE, Kuterdem E. Effect of single-dose prophylactic ampicillin and sulbactam on wound infection after tension-free inguinal hernia repair with polypropylene mesh: the randomised, double-blind, prospective trial. Ann Surg 2001;233(1):26–33.

Young DV. Comparison of local, spinal, and general anesthesia for inguinal herniorrhaphy. Am J Surg 1987;153(6):560–563.