120 studies included (Click here for further information)

Included studies 

Aasbo V, Thuen A, Raeder J. Improved long-lasting postoperative analgesia, recovery function and patient satisfaction after inguinal hernia repair with inguinal field block compared with general anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2002;46(6):674–678.

Abu-Own A, Onwudike M, Haque KA, Barker SG. Primary inguinal hernia repair utilizing the mesh ‘plug’ technique. Ambulatory Surgery 2000;8(1):31–35.

Aida S, Baba H, Yamakura T, Taga K, Fukuda S, Shimoji K. The effectiveness of preemptive analgesia varies according to the type of surgery: a randomized, double-blind study. Anesth Analg 1999;89(3):711–716.

Armstrong DN, Kingsnorth AN. Local anaesthesia in inguinal herniorrhaphy: influence of dextran and saline solutions on duration of action of bupivacaine. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1986;68(4):207–208.

Barth RJ, Jr., Burchard KW, Tosteson A, Sutton JE, Jr., Colacchio TA, Henriques HF, Howard R, Steadman S. Short-term outcome after mesh or shouldice herniorrhaphy: a randomized, prospective study. Surgery 1998;123(2):121–126.

Bay-Nielsen M, Knudsen MS, Christensen JK, Kehlet H. [Cost analysis of inguinal hernia surgery in Denmark]. Ugeskr Laeger 1999;161(38):5317–5321.

Bays RA, Barry L, Vasilenko P. The use of bupivacaine in elective inguinal herniorrhaphy as a fast and safe technique for relief of postoperative pain. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1991;173(6):433–437.

Beets GL, Dirksen CD, Go PMNYH, Geisler FEA, Baeten CGMI, Kootstra G. Open or laparoscopic preperitoneal mesh repair for recurrent inguinal hernia? A randomized controlled trial. Surg Endosc 1999;13(4):323–327.

Ben-David B, Baune-Goldstein U, Goldik Z, Gaitini L. Is preoperative ketorolac a useful adjunct to regional anesthesia for inguinal herniorrhaphy? Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1996;40(3):358–363.

Berndsen F, Arvidsson D, Enander LK, Leijonmarck CE, Wingren U, Rudberg C, Smedberg S, Wickbom G, Montgomery A. Postoperative convalescence after inguinal hernia surgery: prospective randomized multicenter study of laparoscopic versus shouldice inguinal hernia repair in 1042 patients. Hernia 2002;6(2):56–61.

Bessell JR, Baxter P, Riddell P, Watkin S, Maddern GJ. A randomized controlled trial of laparoscopic extraperitoneal hernia repair as a day surgical procedure. Surg Endosc 1996;10(5):495–500.

Bostanci BE, Tetik C, Ozer S, Ozden A. Posterior approaches in groin hernia repair with prosthesis: open or closed. Acta Chir Belg 1998;98(6):241–244.

Bringman S, Ramel S, Heikkinen TJ, Englund T, Westman B, Anderberg B. Tension-free inguinal hernia repair: TEP versus mesh-plug versus Lichtenstein: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg 2003;237(1):142–147.

Bugedo GJ, Carcamo CR, Mertens RA, Dagnino JA, Munoz HR. Preoperative percutaneous ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block with 0.5% bupivacaine for post-herniorrhaphy pain management in adults. Reg Anesth 1990;15(3):130–133.

Callesen T, Bech K, Andersen J, Nielsen R, Roikjaer O, Kehlet H. Pain after primary inguinal herniorrhaphy: influence of surgical technique. J Am Coll Surg 1999;188(4):355–359.

Callesen T, Bech K, Thorup J, Andersen J, Nielsen R, Roikjaer O, Kehlet H. Cryoanalgesia: effect on postherniorrhaphy pain. Anesth Analg 1998;87(4):896–899.

Cameron AE, Cross FW. Pain and mobility after inguinal herniorrhaphy: ineffectiveness of subcutaneous bupivacaine. Br J Surg 1985;72(1):68–69.

Cashman JN, Jones RM, Foster JM, Adams AP. Comparison of infusions of morphine and lysine acetyl salicylate for the relief of pain after surgery. Br J Anaesth 1985;57(3):255–258.

Champault GG, Rizk N, Catheline JM, Turner R, Boutelier P. Inguinal hernia repair: totally preperitoneal laparoscopic approach versus Stoppa operation: randomized trial of 100 cases. Surg Laparosc Endosc 1997;7(6):445–450.

Colak T, Akca T, Kanik A, Aydin S. Randomized clinical trial comparing laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal approach with open mesh repair in inguinal hernia. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2003;13(3):191–195.

Danielsson P, Isacson S, Hansen MV. Randomised study of Lichtenstein compared with Shouldice inguinal hernia repair by surgeons in training. Eur J Surg 1999;165(1):49–53.

de los Santos AR, Di Girolamo G, Marti ML. Efficacy and tolerance of lysine clonixinate versus paracetamol/codeine following inguinal hernioplasty. Int J Tissue React 1998;20(2):71–81.

Di Vita G, Milano S, Frazzetta M, Patti R, Palazzolo V, Barbera C, Ferlazzo V, Leo P, Cillari E. Tension-free hernia repair is associated with an increase in inflammatory response markers against the mesh. Am J Surg 2000;180(3):203–207.

Dierking GW, Dahl JB, Kanstrup J, Dahl A, Kehlet H. Effect of pre- vs postoperative inguinal field block on postoperative pain after herniorrhaphy. see comment. Br J Anaesth 1992;68(4):344–348.

Dierking GW, Ostergaard E, Ostergard HT, Dahl JB. The effects of wound infiltration with bupivacaine versus saline on postoperative pain and opioid requirements after herniorrhaphy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1994;38(3):289–292.

Ding Y, White PF. Post-herniorrhaphy pain in outpatients after pre-incision ilioinguinal-hypogastric nerve block during monitored anaesthesia care. Can J Anaesth 1995;42(1):12–15.

Dirksen CD, Beets GL, Go PM, Geisler FE, Baeten CG, Kootstra G. Bassini repair compared with laparoscopic repair for primary inguinal hernia: a randomised controlled trial. Eur J Surg 1998;164(6):439–447.

Dobrydnjov I, Axelsson K, Thorn SE, Matthiesen P, Klockhoff H, Holmstrom B, Gupta A. Clonidine combined with small-dose bupivacaine during spinal anesthesia for inguinal herniorrhaphy: a randomized double-blinded study. Anesth Analg 2003;96(5):1496–1503, table of contents.

Dueholm S, Forrest M, Hjortso E, Lemvigh E. Pain relief following herniotomy: a double-blind randomized comparison between naproxen and placebo. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1989;33(5):391–394.

Ejlersen E, Andersen HB, Eliasen K, Mogensen T. A comparison between preincisional and postincisional lidocaine infiltration and postoperative pain. Anesth Analg 1992;74(4):495–498.

Elliott S, Eckersall S, Fligelstone L, Jothilingam S. Does the addition of clonidine affect duration of analgesia of bupivacaine wound infiltration in inguinal hernia surgery? B J Anaesth 1997;79(4):446–449.

Erichsen CJ, Vibits H, Dahl JB, Kehlet H. Wound infiltration with ropivacaine and bupivacaine for pain after inguinal herniotomy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1995;39(1):67–70.

Fenton-Lee D, Riach E, Cooke T. The use of a local anaesthetic wound perfusion device versus oral analgesia. A comparison in day case inguinal herniorrhaphy. British Journal of Intensive Care 1994;4(5).

Filipi CJ, Gaston-Johansson F, McBride PJ, Murayama K, Gerhardt J, Cornet DA, Lund RJ, Hirai D, Graham R, Patil K, Fitzgibbons R, Jr., Gaines RD. An assessment of pain and return to normal activity. Laparoscopic herniorrhaphy vs open tension-free Lichtenstein repair. Surg Endosc 1996;10(10):983–986.

Fischer S, Troidl H, MacLean AA, Koehler L, Paul A. Prospective double-blind randomised study of a new regimen of pre-emptive analgesia for inguinal hernia repair: evaluation of postoperative pain course. Eur J Surg 2000;166(7):545–551.

Gilbert JM, Gledhill T, Law N, George C. Controlled trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for postoperative pain relief following inguinal herniorrhaphy. Br J Surg 1986;73(9):749–751.

Gill P, Kiani S, Victoria BA, Atcheson R. Pre-emptive analgesia with local anaesthetic for herniorrhaphy. Anaesthesia 2001;56(5):414–417.

Gokalp A, Inal M, Maralcan G, Baskonus I. A prospective randomized study of Lichtenstein open tension-free versus laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal techniques for inguinal hernia repair. Acta Chir Belg 2003;103(5):502–506.

Gönüllü NN, Cubukcu A, Alponat A. Comparison of local and general anesthesia in tension-free (Lichtenstein) hernioplasty: a prospective randomized trial. Hernia 2002;6(1):29–32.

Gunal O, Arikan Y, Celikel N. Clinical assessment of spinal and epidural anesthesia in inguinal hernia repair. J Anesth 2002;16(2):119–122.

Gupta A, Axelsson K, Thorn SE, Matthiessen P, Larsson LG, Holmstrom B, Wattwil M. Low-dose bupivacaine plus fentanyl for spinal anesthesia during ambulatory inguinal herniorrhaphy: a comparison between 6 mg and 7. 5 mg of bupivacaine. see comment. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2003;47(1):13–19.

Harrison CA, Morris S, Harvey JS. Effect of ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block and wound infiltration with 0.5% bupivacaine on postoperative pain after hernia repair. Br J Anaesth 1994;72(6):691–693.

Heikkinen T, Haukipuro K, Leppala J, Hulkko A. Total costs of laparoscopic and lichtenstein inguinal hernia repairs: a randomized prospective study. Surg Laparosc Endosc 1997;7(1):1–5.

Heikkinen TJ, Haukipuro K, Hulkko A. A cost and outcome comparison between laparoscopic and Lichtenstein hernia operations in a day-case unit. A randomized prospective study. Surg Endosc 1998;12(10):1199–1203.

Johansson B, Hallerback B, Stubberod A, Janbu T, Edwin B, Glise H, Solhaug JH. Preoperative local infiltration with ropivacaine for postoperative pain relief after inguinal hernia repair. A randomised controlled trial. Eur J Surg 1997;163(5):371–378.

Khiroya RC, Davenport HT, Jones JG. Cryoanalgesia for pain after herniorrhaphy. Anaesthesia 1986;41(1):73–76.

Khoury N. A randomized prospective controlled trial of laparoscopic extraperitoneal hemia repair and mesh-plug hemioplasty: A study of 315 cases. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 1998;8(6):367–372.

Kingsnorth AN, Cummings CG, Bennett DH. Local anaesthesia in elective inguinal hernia repair: a randomised, double-blind study comparing the efficacy of levobupivacaine with racemic bupivacaine. Eur J Surg 2002a;168(7):391–396.

Kingsnorth AN, Porter CS, Bennett DH, Walker AJ, Hyland ME, Sodergren S. Lichtenstein patch or Perfix plug-and-patch in inguinal hernia: a prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial of short-term outcome. see comment. Surgery 2000;127(3):276–283.

Kingsnorth AN, Wijesinha SS, Grixti CJ. Evaluation of dextran with local anaesthesia for short-stay inguinal herniorraphy. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1979;61(6):456–458.

Kingsnorth AN, Wright D, Porter CS, Robertson G. Prolene Hernia System compared with Lichtenstein patch: a randomised double blind study of short-term and medium-term outcomes in primary inguinal hernia repair. Hernia 2002b;6(3):113–119.

Klein SM, Pietrobon R, Nielsen KC, Steele SM, Warner DS, Moylan JA, Eubanks WS, Greengrass RA. Paravertebral somatic nerve block compared with peripheral nerve blocks for outpatient inguinal herniorrhaphy. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2002;27(5):476–480.

Korenkov M, Sauerland S, Arndt M, Bograd L, Neugebauer EA, Troidl H. Randomized clinical trial of suture repair, polypropylene mesh or autodermal hernioplasty for incisional hernia. Br J Surg 2002;89(1):50–56.

Koukourou A, Lyon W, Rice J, Wattchow DA. Prospective randomized trial of polypropylene mesh compared with nylon darn in inguinal hernia repair. Br J Surg 2001;88(7):931–934.

Kozol R, Lange PM, Kosir M, Beleski K, Mason K, Tennenberg S, Kubinec SM, Wilson RF. A prospective, randomized study of open vs laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. An assessment of postoperative pain. Arch Surg 1997;132(3):292–295.

Lal P, Kajla RK, Chander J, Saha R, Ramteke VK. Randomized controlled study of laparoscopic total extraperitoneal versus open Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair. Surg Endosc 2003;17(6):850–856.

Langenbach MR, Schmidt J, Zirngibl H. Comparison of biomaterials in the early postoperative period: Polypropylene meshes in laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Surg Endosc 2003;17(7):1105–1109.

Lau H, Patil NG, Lee F. Randomized clinical trial of postoperative subfascial infusion with bupivacaine following ambulatory open mesh repair of inguinal hernia. Dig Surg 2003;20(4):285–289.

Lau H, Wong C, Goh LC, Patil NG, Lee F. Prospective randomized trial of pre-emptive analgesics following ambulatory inguinal hernia repair: intravenous ketorolac versus diclofenac suppository. ANZ J Surg 2002;72(10):704–707.

Lawrence K, McWhinnie D, Goodwin A, Doll H, Gordon A, Gray A, Britton J, Collin J. Randomised controlled trial of laparoscopic versus open repair of inguinal hernia: early results. see comment. BMJ 1995;311(7011):981–985.

Leibl BJ, Kraft B, Redecke JD, Schmedt CG, Ulrich M, Kraft K, Bittner R. Are postoperative complaints and complications influenced by different techniques in fashioning and fixing the mesh in transperitoneal laparoscopic hernioplasty? Results of a prospective randomized trial. World J Surg 2002;26(12):1481–1484.

Lin CF, Wong KL, Chan YL, Wang JM, Wu KH, Wei TT. Comparison of local infiltration of tenoxicam and intravenous tenoxicam for postoperative analgesia in herniorrhaphy. Acta Anaesthesiologica Sinica 1998;36(1):23–29.

Lorenz D, Stark E, Oestreich K, Richter A. Laparoscopic hernioplasty versus conventional hernioplasty (Shouldice): results of a prospective randomized trial. W J Surg 2000;24(6):739–745; discussion 745–746.

Ma H, Tang J, White PF, Zaentz A, Wender RH, Sloninsky A, Naruse R, Kariger R, Quon R, Wood D, Carroll BJ. Perioperative rofecoxib improves early recovery after outpatient herniorrhaphy. Anesth Analg 2004;98:970–975.

Maddern GJ, Rudkin G, Bessell JR, Devitt P, Ponte L. A comparison of laparoscopic and open hernia repair as a day surgical procedure. Surg Endosc 1994;8(12):1404–1408.

Mahon D, Decadt B, Rhodes M. Prospective randomized trial of laparoscopic (transabdominal preperitoneal) vs open (mesh) repair for bilateral and recurrent inguinal hernia. Surg Endosc 2003;17(9):1386–1390.

Malazgirt Z, Ozkan K, Dervisoglu A, Kaya E. Comparison of Stoppa and Lichtenstein techniques in the repair of bilateral inguinal hernias. Hernia 2000;4(4):264–267.

McCleane G, Mackle E, Stirling I. The addition of triamcinolone acetonide to bupivacaine has no effect on the quality of analgesia produced by ilioinguinal nerve block. Anaesthesia 1994;49(9):819–820.

Mikkelsen SS, Knudsen KE, Kristensen BB, Linnemann MU, Friis E, Dahl JB. Comparison of tenoxicam by intramuscular injection or wound infiltration for analgesia after inguinal herniorrhaphy. see comment. Anesth Analg 1996;83(6):1239–1243.

Mills IW, McDermott IM, Ratliff DA. Prospective randomized controlled trial to compare skin staples and polypropylene for securing the mesh in inguinal hernia repair. see comment. Br J Surg 1998;85(6):790–792.

Mulroy MF, Burgess FW, Emanuelsson BM. Ropivacaine 0.25% and 0.5%, but not 0.125%, provide effective wound infiltration analgesia after outpatient hernia repair, but with sustained plasma drug levels. Reg Anesth Pain Med 1999;24(2):136–141.

Narchi P, Carry PY, Catoire P, Fleyfel M, Hermant JL, Laurent P, Pinhas JM, Pulcini A, Jacquemet N, Trinquet F. Postoperative pain relief and recovery with ropivacaine infiltration after inguinal hernia repair. Ambulatory Surgery 1998;6(4):221–226.

Nehra D, Gemmell L, Pye JK. Pain relief after inguinal hernia repair: a randomized double-blind study. see comment. Br J Surg 1995;82(9):1245–1247.

Neumayer L, Giobbie-Hurder A, Jonasson O, Fitzgibbons R, Jr., Dunlop D, Gibbs J, Reda D, Henderson W. Open mesh versus laparoscopic mesh repair of inguinal hernia. N Engl J Med 2004;350(18):1819–1827.

Nordin P, Bartelmess P, Jansson C, Svensson C, Edlund G. Randomized trial of lichtenstein versus Shouldice hernia repair in general surgical practice. British Journal of Surgery 2002;89(1):45–49.

Nordin P, Zetterstrom H, Gunnarsson U, Nilsson E. Local, regional, or general anaesthesia in groin hernia repair: multicentre randomised trial. Lancet 2003;362(9387):853–858.

Oakley MJ, Smith JS, Anderson JR, Fenton-Lee D. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of local anaesthetic infusion in day-case inguinal hernia repair. see comment. Br J Surg 1998;85(6):797–799.

O’Dwyer PJ, Serpell MG, Millar K, Paterson C, Young D, Hair A, Courtney CA, Horgan P, Kumar S, Walker A, Ford I. Local or general anesthesia for open hernia repair: a randomized trial. Ann Surg 2003;237(4):574–579.

O’Hanlon JJ, McCleane G, Muldoon T. Preoperative application of piroxicam gel compared to a local anaesthetic field block for postoperative analgesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1996;40(6):715–718.

Ozgun H, Kurt MN, Kurt I, Cevikel MH. Comparison of local, spinal, and general anaesthesia for inguinal herniorrhaphy. Eur J Surg 2002;168(8–9):455–459.

Paganini AM, Lezoche E, Carle F, Carlei F, Favretti F, Feliciotti F, Gesuita R, Guerrieri M, Lomanto D, Nardovino M, Panti M, Ribichini P, Sarli L, Sottili M, Tamburini A, Taschieri A. A randomized, controlled, clinical study of laparoscopic vs open tension-free inguinal hernia repair. Surg Endosc 1998;12(7):979–986.

Pavlin DJ, Horvath KD, Pavlin EG, Sima K. Preincisional treatment to prevent pain after ambulatory hernia surgery. Anesth Analg 2003;97(6):1627–1632.

Pettersson N, Berggren P, Larsson M, Westman B, Hahn RG. Pain relief by wound infiltration with bupivacaine or high-dose ropivacaine after inguinal hernia repair. Reg Anesth Pain Med 1999;24(6):569–575.

Picchio M, Lombardi A, Zolovkins A, Mihelsons M, La Torre G, Zucker KA. Tension-free laparoscopic and open hernia repair: Randomized controlled trial of early results. World J Surg 1004;23(10):1004–1009.

Picchio M, Palimento D, Attanasio U, Matarazzo PF, Bambini C, Caliendo A. Randomized controlled trial of preservation or elective division of ilioinguinal nerve on open inguinal hernia repair with polypropylene mesh. Arch Surg 2004;139(7):755–758; discussion 759.

Pinto Pereira LM, Chen D, Clement Y, Simeon D. Analgesic effects of diclofenac suppository and injection after preoperative administration. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1999;19(2):47–51.

Post S, Weiss B, Willer M, Neufang T, Lorenz D. Randomized clinical trial of lightweight composite mesh for Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair. Br J Surg 2004;91(1):44–48.

Prior MJ, Williams EV, Shukla HS, Phillips S, Vig S, Lewis M. Prospective randomized controlled trial comparing Lichtenstein with modified Bassini repair of inguinal hernia. J R Coll Surg Edinb 1998;43(2):82–86.

Ravichandran D, Kalambe BG, Pain JA. Pilot randomized controlled study of preservation or division of ilioinguinal nerve in open mesh repair of inguinal hernia. Br J Surg 2000;87(9):1166–1167.

Romsing J, Mysager S, Vilmann P, Sonne J, Larsen NE, stergaard D. Postoperative analgesia is not different after local vs systemic administration of meloxicam in patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair. Can J Anaesth 2001;48(10):978–984.

Rosenstock C, Andersen G, Antonsen K, Rasmussen H, Lund C. Analgesic effect of incisional morphine following inguinal herniotomy under spinal anesthesia. Reg Anesth 1996;21(2):93–8.

Rosenstock C, Rasmussen H, Andersen G, Lund C. Incisional morphine has no analgesic effect on postoperative pain following inguinal herniotomy. Reg Anesth Pain Med 1998;23(1):57–63.

Sarli L, Iusco DR, Sansebastiano G, Costi R. Simultaneous repair of bilateral inguinal hernias: a prospective, randomized study of open, tension-free versus laparoscopic approach. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2001;11(4):262–267.

Schmitz R, Shah S, Oerder M, Treckmann J. Does postoperative locally applied second shot analgesia improve the patients’ pain perception after tension free hernia repair? A doubleblinded study. Hernia 1999;3(3):125–129.

Schrenk P, Bettelheim P, Woisetschlager R, Rieger R, Wayand WU. Metabolic responses after laparoscopic or open hernia repair. Surg Endosc 1996a;10(6):628–632.

Schrenk P, Woisetschlager R, Rieger R, Wayand W. Prospective randomized trial comparing postoperative pain and return to physical activity after transabdominal preperitoneal, total preperitoneal or Shouldice technique for inguinal hernia repair. see comment. Br J Surg 1996b;83(11):1563–1566.

Schurr MJ, Gordon DB, Pellino TA, Scanlon TA. Continuous local anesthetic infusion for pain management after outpatient inguinal herniorrhaphy. Surgery 2004;136(4):761–769.

Sinclair R, Cassuto J, Hogstrom S, Linden I, Faxen A, Hedner T, Ekman R. Topical anesthesia with lidocaine aerosol in the control of postoperative pain. Anesthesiology 1988;68(6):895–901.

Smedley F, Taube M, Wastell C. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for pain relief following inguinal hernia repair: a controlled trial. Eur Surg Res 1988;20(4):233–237.

Song D, Greilich NB, White PF, Watcha MF, Tongier WK. Recovery profiles and costs of anesthesia for outpatient unilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy. Anesth Analg 2000;91(4):876–881.

Spittal MJ, Hunter SJ. A comparison of bupivacaine instillation and inguinal field block for control of pain after herniorrhaphy. see comment. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1992;74(2):85–88.

Stoker DL, Spiegelhalter DJ, Singh R, Wellwood JM. Laparoscopic versus open inguinal hernia repair: randomised prospective trial. see comment. Lancet 1994;343(8908):1243–1245.

Suter M, Martinet O, Spertini F. Reduced acute phase response after laparoscopic total extraperitoneal bilateral hernia repair compared to open repair with the Stoppa procedure. Surg Endosc 2002;16(8):1214–1219.

Tan PH, Kuo JH, Liu K, Hung CC, Tsai TC, Deng TY. Efficacy of intrathecal neostigmine for the relief of postinguinal hemiorrhaphy pain. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2000;44(9):1056–1060.

Tan PH, Liu K, Peng CH, Yang LC, Lin CR, Lu CY. The effect of dexamethasone on postoperative pain and emesis after intrathecal neostigmine. Anesth Analg 2001;92(1):228–232.

Tanphiphat C, Tanprayoon T, Sangsubhan C, Chatamra K. Laparoscopic vs open inguinal hernia repair. A randomized, controlled trial. Surg Endosc 1998;12(6):846–851.

Teasdale C, McCrum AM, Williams NB, Horton RE. A randomised controlled trial to compare local with general anaesthesia for short-stay inguinal hernia repair. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1982;64(4):238–242.

Thapar V, Rao P, Deshpande A, Sanghavi B, Supe AN. Shouldice’s herniorrhaphy versus Moloney’s darn herniorrhaphy in young patients (a prospective randomised study). J Postgrad Med 2000;46(1):9–12.

Toivonen J, Permi J, Rosenberg PH. Effect of preincisional ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block on postoperative analgesic requirement in day-surgery patients undergoing herniorrhaphy under spinal anaesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2001;45(5):603–607.

Tschudi J, Wagner M, Klaiber C, Brugger J, Frei E, Krahenbuhl L, Inderbitzi R, Husler J, Hsu Schmitz S. Controlled multicenter trial of laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernioplasty vs Shouldice herniorrhaphy. Early results. see comment. Surg Endosc 1996;10(8):845–847.

Tschudi JF, Wagner M, Klaiber C, Brugger JJ, Frei E, Krahenbuhl L, Inderbitzi R, Boinski J, Hsu Schmitz SF, Husler J. Randomized controlled trial of laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernioplasty vs Shouldice repair. Surg Endosc 2001;15(11):1263–1266.

Tverskoy M, Braslavsky A, Mazor A, Ferman R, Kissin I. The peripheral effect of fentanyl on postoperative pain. Anesth Analg 1998;87(5):1121–1124.

Tverskoy M, Cozacov C, Ayache M, Bradley EL, Jr., Kissin I. Postoperative pain after inguinal herniorrhaphy with different types of anesthesia. see comment. Anesth Analg 1990;70(1):29–35.

Vintar N, Pozlep G, Rawal N, Godec M, Rakovec S. Incisional self-administration of bupivacaine or ropivacaine provides effective analgesia after inguinal hernia repair. Can J Anaesth 2002;49(5):481–486.

Wellwood J, Sculpher MJ, Stoker D, Nicholls GJ, Geddes C, Whitehead A, Singh R, Spiegelhalter D. Randomised controlled trial of laparoscopic versus open mesh repair for inguinal hernia: outcome and cost. erratum appears in BMJ 1998 Sep 5;317(7159):631. BMJ 1998;317(7151):103–110.

Witkowski P, Pirski MI, Adamonis W, Smietanski M, Draczkowski T, Sledzinski Z. Mesh plug versus Bassini operation: A randomized prospective study. Hernia 2000;4(4):305–310.

Wright DM, Kennedy A, Baxter JN, Fullarton GM, Fife LM, Sunderland GT, O’Dwyer PJ. Early outcome after open versus extraperitoneal endoscopic tension-free hernioplasty: a randomized clinical trial. Surgery 1996;119(5):552–557.

Yndgaard S, Holst P, Bjerre-Jepsen K, Thomsen CB, Struckmann J, Mogensen T. Subcutaneously versus subfascially administered lidocaine in pain treatment after inguinal herniotomy. Anesth Analg 1994;79(2):324–327.

Zieren J, Zieren HU, Jacobi CA, Muller JM. Repeated boluses of local anaesthetic for pain relief after inguinal hernia repair. Eur J Surg 1999;165(5):460–464.

Zieren J, Zieren HU, Jacobi CA, Wenger FA, Muller JM. Prospective randomized study comparing laparoscopic and open tension-free inguinal hernia repair with Shouldice’s operation. Am J Surg 1998;175(4):330–333.